Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
Official name of the country: Republic of Zambia (Republic of Zambia)
Zambia is a landlocked African country with an area of 752,614 km2. It is bordered by Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Botswana. Zambia, formerly Northern Rhodesia, gained independence from Great Britain in 1964.
In terms of political system, Zambia is a presidential-type unitary republic with a pluralistic multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the unicameral National Assembly. 156 deputies are directly elected to it, a maximum of 10 are appointed. Elections are held every 5 years (presidential, parliamentary and municipal) – the last tripartite elections were held in August 2021. The president is the head of state and at the same time the head of government, which he appoints from the members of the National Assembly. Check cancermatters to learn more about Zambia political system.
The political scene in Zambia is relatively stable, since the presidential election in 2016, the result of which was very close, but the country is politically quite divided, the national dialogue launched in 2017 did not bring any results. This polarization grew further during the run-up to the 2021 elections. Opposition parties and independent media complained of restrictions on the right to freedom of expression, assembly and association. Despite these circumstances, the main opposition party UPND (United Party for National Development) achieved a significant victory and its leader Hakainde Hichilema. who unsuccessfully ran for the country’s president five times in the past, was elected president in the first round with 59% of the vote. The new government has announced as its priorities an emphasis on the rule of law and the fight against corruption, improving the business environment and restoring the confidence of foreign investors.
Rampant corruption continues to be a significant problem. In just three years (2017-2019), Zambia has fallen seventeen places in Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index and remains at its worst ever score (33 points out of a possible 100 and tied for 117th out of 183 countries assessed for 2021).
Composition of the government:
President – Hakainde Hichilema
Vice President – Mutale Nalumango
Minister elected – Ambrose Lwiji Lufum
Minister of Home Affairs – Jacob Jack Mwiimbu
Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation – Stanley Kakubo
Minister of Energy – Peter Chibwe Kapala
Minister of Water Resources Development and Sanitation – Mike Elton Mposha
Minister of Health – Sylvia T. Masebo
Minister of Education – Douglas Siakalima
Minister for Community Development – Doreen Mwamba
Minister of Labor and Social Security – Brenda Tambatamba
Minister of Justice – Mulambo Haimbe
Minister of Lands and Natural Resources – Elijah Muchimba
Minister of Transport and Logistics – Frank Tayali
Minister of Infrastructure, Housing and Urban Development – Charles Milupi
Minister of Technology and Science – Felix Mutati
Minister of Local Government – Gary Nkombo
Minister of Tourism and the Arts – Rodney Sikumba
Minister for Small and Medium Enterprises – Elias Mubanga
Minister of Information and Media – Chushi Kasanda
Minister of Green Economy and Environment – Collins Nzovu
Minister of Livestock and Fisheries – Makozo Chikote
Minister of Mines and Minerals – Paul Chanda Kabuswe
Minister of Agriculture – Mtolo Phiri
Ministr obchodu – Chipoka Mulenga
Minister of Youth and Sports – Elvis Nkandu
Foreign policy of the country
Zambia is a member of the following major international organizations: United Nations, African Union, Commonwealth, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, African Development Bank, Southern African Development Community (SADC), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) – COMESA headquarters are in Lusaka.
Zambia is not very active on the international scene. In early 2021, the government ratified the Tripartite Free Trade Area (COMESA, SADC and EAC joint zone). Zambia has also completed the process of ratifying the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA).
Relations with the EU are cautious, but not negative, after a series of corruption scandals in 2018. In private, many EU representatives expressed considerable frustration with relations with the previous Zambian government, with corruption and lack of capacity for action being the main topics of concern. The new government emphasizes the fight against corruption as its priority and strives to improve communication with the EU. Negotiations on an economic partnership agreement with the EU (Economic Partnership Agreement – EPA) are continuing, but the agreement has not yet been signed, Zambia is among the six countries of the SADC region that have not signed the provisional agreement. Under the Everything but Arms initiative, Zambia has the benefit of duty-free importation of goods into European markets without quantitative restrictions. Check prozipcodes for Zambia defense and foreign policy.
China has been active in Zambia for a long time and has gained great political influence there in recent years. This was done through an economic trap in the form of a huge amount of loans, especially for infrastructure projects built by Chinese companies, which the Zambian government will not be able to repay without negotiations with the PRC. The new government has suspended some of the projects, with many of them there are doubts about their usefulness for Zambia, or amount of costs. Zambia has the third largest number of Chinese companies in Africa. Debt restructuring negotiations are currently the most important in relation to China. However, the government in Beijing is generally unwilling to waive Zambia’s obligations to its Chinese creditors. During 2020 – 2021, the PRC repeatedly provided Zambia with humanitarian aid to fight the COVID-19 disease in the form of medical supplies,
The main interest of the Zambian government is the search for new investors, which is why relations with the Persian Gulf states, India, Turkey and Israel are developing. In terms of foreign investment, Zambia had high hopes for the Russia-Africa summit in 2019. Despite the negotiations, no concrete Russian-Zambian projects have yet been launched.
In the region, Zambia’s most important partner is the Republic of South Africa, where most of the country’s imports come from. Zambia is trying to resolve its long-standing border dispute with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which has repeatedly escalated in the past in terms of strengthening the military presence of both countries in the disputed area. However, the Zambian government does not comment on the internal situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or Zimbabwe. Conversely, Zambia is watching with concern the situation in northern Mozambique and the conflict with the terrorist group Ansar al-Sunna (allegedly linked to DAESH/Islamic State and the Somali group al-Shabaab) in the Cabo Delgado region.
Zambia is experiencing rapid population growth, currently at 2.9% per year. According to estimates, the population will grow to 40 million people by 2050 unless current trends are reversed.
Population: 19.5 million inhabitants (2022 estimate)
Population density: 26 inhabitants/km2
0 – 14 let: 45,7 %
15 – 24 let: 20,0 %
25 – 54 let: 29,0 %
55 – 64 let: 3,0 %
65 and over: 2.3%
Ethnic composition: Zambia is a multi-ethnic country with more than 70 ethnic groups. The Zambian population is made up of 99.5% indigenous African tribal groups, the most numerous of which are: Bemba 21.0%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4.0%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2, 1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%. Economically significant groups are Indians, Lebanese, Zimbabweans and South Africans.
Religious composition: 92% Christians (mostly Protestants, also Catholics and members of African Christian religions), 3% Muslims, 3% others (Buddhists, Hindus), 2% local religions.