Yemen History, Politics and Demographics

By | November 25, 2022

Yemen (Romanian pronunciation: /ˈjɛmen/; Arabic : اليَمَن al-Yaman), officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic : الجمهرويه اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya al-Yamaniyya) is a country in the Middle East located in the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia. With a population of approximately 23,580,000, Yemen is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Aden to the south, and Oman to the east. The territory of Yemen includes over 200 islands, the largest being Socotra, about 415 km south of Yemen, near the coast of Somalia.


The desert lands of contemporary Yemen were heralded for their wealth since Antiquity. Here caravans stopped in search of expensive goods, such as myrrh, spices or precious stones. For this reason, the Romans nicknamed the Yemeni land ” Happy Arabia “. During the first war with the Jews, the latter were defeated by the Romans. Many of the defeated saved themselves by fleeing to Yemen, where they later settled permanently. They specialized in embellishing curved bladed stilettos with silver decorations. Initially, they served as weapons, but over time, they became a symbol of the Yemenis’ social status, which they still wear with pride today.

  • Cachedhealth: Information about Yemen, covering history and geography.

The roots of the long conflict that has wreaked havoc in Yemen can be traced back to the colonial period. In 1839, the city of Aden in the south of the country was occupied by the British. With the inauguration of the Suez Canal in 1869, Yemen gained great strategic importance. In 1918, it became an independent kingdom. In the following decades, there were repeated clashes between Sunni, anti-royalist and pro-Western Aden, and Shiite, conservative Sana’a. After the death of Imam Ahmed, in 1962, a group of officers abolished the monarchy and proclaimed the Yemen Arab Republic. The eight-year war between the supporters of the monarchy and the republicans ended with the victory of the latter. In 1967, the National Liberation Front proclaimed the People’s Republic of South Yemen, which in reality led to the division of the country. In the years that followed, there were frequent clashes between the warring states. Ultimately, however, economic problems forced the reunification of Yemen, which took place on May 22, 1990. The internal situation, aggravated by the deplorable state of the economy, is unstable and has led to the outbreak of a new civil war.


Yemen is a presidential republic, according to the constitution approved by referendum on May 16, 1991. The September 29, 1994 amendments define Yemen as an Islamic republic and make Sharia the basis of all the country’s laws. Legislative activity is exercised by a unicameral parliament. House of Representatives (301 members, elected by direct vote, for a 4-year term). Executive power is exercised by the president. Head of state: the president (elected by direct vote, for a single 5-year term). [4]

Political parties: General People’s Congress, Yemeni Ishah Party (founded 1990), Socialist Party (founded 1978). Following a popular uprising that began in 2011, President Ali Abdullah Saleh resigned, but will continue to lead the state until February 21, 2012, when presidential elections will be held, with Mansour Hadi serving as interim president for some time.

Administrative divisions

As of February 2004, Yemen consists of 21 governorates (Arabic: muhafazah ) [5]. The population of each governorate is found in the table below:

division Capital Population (2004) No.
‘Adan Aden 589,419 1
Amran Amran 877,786 2
Abyan Gingerbread 433,819 3
Ad Dali’ Ad Dali’ 470,564 4
Al Bayda’ Al Bayda 577,369 5
Al Hudaydah Al Hudaydah 2,157,552 6
Al Jawf Al Jawf 443,797 7
Al Mahrah Al Ghaydah 88,594 8
Al Mahwit Al Mahwit 494,557 9
Amanat Al Asimah Sana’a 1,747,834 10
Dhamar Dhamar 1,330,108 11
Hadramaut Al Mukalla 1,028,556 12
Hajjah Hajjah 1,479,568 13
ibb ibb 2,131,861 14
Lahij Lahij 722,694 15
Ma’rib Ma’rib 238,522 16
Raymah Jabin 394,448 17
Sa’dah Sa`dah 695,033 18
Sana’a San`a’ 919,215 19
Shabwah “Attack 470,440 20
Ta’izz Ta`izz 2,393,425 21

The governorates are divided into 333 districts ( muderiah ), which are made up of 2,210 sub-districts, and 38,284 communes ( 2001 ).


The population of Yemen was approximately 23,580,000 according to 2009 estimates, with 46% of the population being under 15 years of age and 2.7% over 65 years of age. In 1950, the number of inhabitants was 4,300,000. [6] [7] By 2050, the population is expected to increase to approximately 60 million inhabitants.

UNESCO World Heritage

Until 2011, 4 sites from this country were included in the UNESCO world heritage list.


Yemen is the poorest country in the Arab world, where each inhabitant gets 200 cubic meters of water annually, well below the poverty line of 1,000 cubic meters of water per person. [9] The country imports 80 – 90% of its food.

Yemen Politics