Venezuela 1949

By | December 16, 2021

Demographic conditions. – According to the data of the 1941 census, the total population of Venezuela is 3,850,771 residents of which about 100,000 Amerindians. Between 1935 and 1941 the demographic increase was equal to an average annual percentage of 2.6%. A further evaluation of 1947 attributes to the country 4,189,000 residents Caracas, in 1941, counted 269,030 residents Maracaibo had 112,519.

The immigration movement after World War II resumed at an accelerated pace. From 1939 to 1947 the units entered the country were 19,952, including many Italians: 1989 in 1947, but since this figure refers only to immigrants assisted directly by the Immigration Institute, it can be calculated that in that year they entered the Venezuela about 2500 Italians.

Economic conditions. – Among the agricultural crops, that of coffee (714,480 q. In 1946; for 93% exported to the US) and that of sugar cane (327,000 q. In 1945 and 285,000 q. In 1946) regained their share. The others remain substantially unchanged. For breeding, recent statistics show – with the exception of cattle – a decrease during the last twenty years (in thousands of heads, in 1940: 4264.5 cattle; 107.8 sheep and 1364.6 goats; 194 horses; 191 donkeys ; 355.5 pigs). The oil industry has had a further development (see petroleum, in this App.). Government provisions of 1943 tend to favor the development of local refining and for this purpose, two refineries were set up in 1947 (in the Amuay bay and Punta Cardon) for the processing of approximately 170,000 liters of raw liquid per day. An official estimate of the oil reserves, carried out in 1947, puts them at around 1100 million tonnes. For Venezuela 1997, please check aristmarketing.com.

The extraction of gold (in 1944, 2417 kg. And in 1946, 1374 kg.) Is fluctuating in value, but quite considerable, and that of pearls in the Margarita island has been strongly developing in recent years (431, 9 kg. In 1946). The huge hydroelectric resources are valued at 3 million HP, of which only 15,000 are used.

Communications and Commerce. – The railways have a length of 1125 km; the carriage roads extend for 5161 km. In 1943, the Venezuelan section of the Pan-American road was opened to traffic. Foreign trade in 1943 registered a total of 2,873,399 q. of imported goods (222,000,000 bolívares) and 25,308,771 q. of exported goods (862,000,000 bolívares).

Administrative political order. – On July 5, 1947, a new constitution was promulgated, which does not present major changes compared to the previous ones. All residents, male and female, from the age of 18 onwards, are recognized as voters, without educational limitations. Direct elections are made for the president of the republic, for the senate, for the chamber (5 years), for the legislative assembly of each state and for the municipal councils. For the election of the latter, foreigners who have resided in the country for over ten years also have the right to vote.

Finance. – The figures of the financial statements are shown below:

At 31 December 1947, the internal public debt amounted to 23, the millions and the foreign one in 122,000 bolivares.

With the law of October 1939, the Banco Central de Venezuela was created with a capital of 10 million (50% underwritten by the state), which replaced the Banco de Venezuela in controlling circulation, while taking over the treasury service. of the state. The reserves reached, in December 1948, a maximum (between the Central Bank and the Treasury) of 1094 million bolívares. Alongside a sale exchange rate, which since 1942 has been fixed at the level of 3.35 b0lívares per dollar, and on the basis of which a gold parity of 0.265.275 grams of fine has been communicated to the International Monetary Fund, there are five different exchange rates., unchanged since 1945, ranging from a low of 3.03 bolívares per dollar, for the oil export currency, to a high of 4, 80 for that coming from coffee exports. As of November 30, 1948, circulation amounted to 674 million (December 1939: 182 million). At the same date, deposits with commercial banks amounted to 712 million, of which 596 million at sight.

History. – President Eleazar López Contreras tried to give the country economic stability and a democratic order, presenting in 1938 a three-year plan for public works, increased agricultural production and emigration and social improvements, for 364 million bolívares. Then the urban reorganization of Caracas was planned and major works were undertaken by a Dutch firm in the port of La Guayra. Increased oil production offered great prospects; but the fire that in November 1939 destroyed the center of Lagunillas (14,000 residents), near Maracaibo, plus the war, hence the situation in Holland (oil is refined in Curaçao and Aruba), made the political situation delicate and the economic one is serious, due to decreased exports (consisting, for more than 90%, of oil), hence the collapse in the course of the bolívar, which fell from 0.33 to 0.25 dollars, and the restriction of imports; and only partial remedies were made by the trade agreement with the United States and by having more than doubled the share of coffee, under the pan-American agreement of 1940.

Meanwhile, the “Bolivarian” party remained in power; and, not wanting López to be re-elected, he was succeeded, from May 9, 1941, by General Isaías Medina Angarita, who declared himself in favor of democracies and allowed his opponent, the well-known novelist Rómulo Gallegos, to form his party Acción democrática. Treaties with Brazil were concluded (after the non-aggression pact of 8 December 1938) for the regulation of the borders, in January; and with Colombia, settling the centuries-old quarrel, in April 1941; and in December, Venezuela declared war on the Tripartite countries. The following year, seven modus vivendi agreements were concluded with various South American countries, a trade treaty with Argentina and that with Great Britain which, by regulating the border in the Gulf of Paria, left the island of los Patos to Venezuela. The civil code was renewed, income tax established. Confirmed the majority of the Medina party in the 1943 elections, he granted three portfolios to the liberals, started negotiations, during a trip to the United States, with Henzy J. Kaiser and then with the other American magnates, for the industrialization and exploitation of natural resources of his country; he stepped up the fight against illiteracy, supplied raw materials to the United States and received aid for coastal defense, liquidated German and Japanese companies, laid down an extensive social security law; but he dissolved the leagues that the Communists admitted. However, he recognized the legality of this party in 1945. But despite the electoral victory in January of that year, a revolution, which broke out on October 18, 1945, forced him to take refuge in the United States, with López and others.

The new president, the socialist Rómulo A. Bétancourt, reassured the oil companies, promised a new constitution and elections within 6 months, and was soon recognized internationally. In March 1946, the state of siege was lifted and freedom was granted to political prisoners; but there were clashes between the conservatives and Acción democrática and between it and the communists, until the break. López and Medina were convicted of extortion and embezzlement. The government instituted a progressive tax on profits, and started the Caracas master plan and other works, with Italian technicians. But the conservatives did not disarm; after the elections to the Constituent Assembly, which they gave to the Acción democrática 137 seats out of 160, attempts continued; on 11 December the rioters seized the Maracay airport and were dropped by air bombs on Caracas. The government reacted; then, an amnesty was granted to Medina, López and others, and the new constitution was promulgated on July 5, 1947. In February, an agreement with the International Refugee Organization allowed the immigration of 5,000 families (15,000 people, 40% farmers). And the elections of December 14, 1947, which took place quietly, led R. Gallegos to the presidency. But the conservatives continued their activity by joining the army; and since on November 20, 1948 the government decreed a state of siege, on the 23rd a group of senior officers carried out a coup; the Gallegos went into exile in Cuba, and the government was taken over by a military junta.

Venezuela 1949