Uzbekistan Population and Economy

By | June 6, 2022

Population

According to Homosociety, the population of the Uzbekistan, which in 1989 (last census of the USSR) was 19.900.000 residents, reached in 2009 an estimated value of 27.606.007, confirming itself among the most populated Asian republics of recent independence. The annual rate of population growth, although down compared to the five-year period 1992-97 (2%), remains quite high (0.9%). This dynamic can be ascribed to the persistence of a strong gap between the birth rate and the death rate (respectively 17.5 and 5.2 ‰ in 2009). The migratory movement has changed the ethnic composition of the country in the last three decades, making it more and more homogeneous. Over 80% of the population is, in fact, Uzbek (it was 70% in 1991), while the Russian and Tajik minorities do not exceed 5%. Kazakhs are also present(3%), karakalpaki (2.5%) and Tatars (1.5%). The average density is almost 62 residents/km2. The population remains mainly rural (approx. 60%). The main cities are Tashkent, the capital (2,200,000), followed by Samarkand (410,000), Namangan (380,000) and Andiuan (330,000).

Economic conditions

More than 15 years after the collapse of the USSR, the transition process from the planned economy to the market is still far from being achieved. Despite the positive trend in GDP, the prospects for economic liberalization are still modest and the necessary structural reforms follow a difficult path. The first steps towards the introduction of liberal reforms, undertaken between 1991 and 1993, were very timid. The fall in GDP and an inflation rate that reached 700% in 1994 made it necessary to adopt energetic economic and monetary measures: introduction of a new currency (the sum), privatizations, opening the market to foreign investors. At the end of the 1990s, signs of economic recovery began to be recorded, to be ascribed to the rise in prices on the international markets of exported products, cotton and gold above all, but also to a greater international opening of the country. Thebusiness climate, as demonstrated by the numerous entrepreneurial initiatives in joint-venture with large international groups: with Daewoo for the production of automobiles in Asaka, with the French Technip and the Japanese Marubeni for oil refining in Bukhara, with the American AAB Lumus Global and Japan’s Mitsui and Nisho Ivai for a chemical complex in the Shurtan region. In July 2007, news was given of the opening in Andjian of an Italian-Uzbek joint venture, Anditaltex, for the production of high quality yarns. For the rest, the industrial sector, which represents about 22% of GDP, is characterized by the presence of plants inherited from the Soviet period (metallurgical, steel and mechanical plants) and by textile and food production. The subsoil is particularly rich: there are deposits of gold (4th place in the world), copper, uranium, tungsten, lead, zinc, but also oil and natural gas reserves, not yet adequately exploited. ● Agriculture accounts for about 33% of GDP and forms the backbone of the Uzbek economy. The main crop is cotton, of which the Uzbekistan it is the fifth largest producer in the world and the second exporter, followed by silk (third producer after China and India). The crops of wheat, rice, fruit and vegetables are significant. Livestock breeding is important, especially sheep (karakul variety). The trade balance is constantly in surplus, thanks to the large exports of cotton and gold. The main commercial partner remains the ● Agriculture accounts for about 33% of GDP and forms the backbone of the Uzbek economy. The main crop is cotton, of which the Uzbekistan it is the fifth largest producer in the world and the second exporter, followed by silk (third producer after China and India). The crops of wheat, rice, fruit and vegetables are significant. Livestock breeding is important, especially sheep (karakul variety). The trade balance is constantly in surplus, thanks to the large exports of cotton and gold. The main commercial partner remains the ● Agriculture accounts for about 33% of GDP and forms the backbone of the Uzbek economy. The main crop is cotton, of which the Uzbekistan it is the fifth largest producer in the world and the second exporter, followed by silk (third producer after China and India). The crops of wheat, rice, fruit and vegetables are significant. Livestock breeding is important, especially sheep (karakul variety). The trade balance is constantly in surplus, thanks to the large exports of cotton and gold. The main commercial partner remains the Livestock breeding is important, especially sheep (karakul variety). The trade balance is constantly in surplus, thanks to the large exports of cotton and gold. The main commercial partner remains the Livestock breeding is important, especially sheep (karakul variety). The trade balance is constantly in surplus, thanks to the large exports of cotton and gold. The main commercial partner remains the Russia, followed by Korea, China and, among European countries, Germany and Turkey. The Uzbekistan is involved in the TRACECA infrastructure program (Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia) for the development of intercontinental trade along the ancient ‘silk road’. The growth prospects of the tourism sector are interesting, as the Uzbekistan count on an archaeological and historical-artistic heritage of world significance (Samarkand, Bukhara).

Uzbekistan Population