Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The political structure of Uzbekistan is based on the last revision of the constitution in December 2014. The president has the greatest executive power in the republic, who appoints the prime minister and ministers and has the right to dissolve the parliament. Compared to the previous 7-year term of office, the current constitution envisages a 5-year mandate, which can be served a maximum of two times. Elections were last held in October 2021, when the current president, Savkat Mirziyoyev, was re-elected. The head of government is the prime minister, who is appointed by the president and approved by parliament. The role of parliament in Uzbekistan is weak and basically only confirms the policy of the president. The Olij Mažlis Uzbek parliament has been bicameral since 2002. The legislative chamber (lower house) has 150 deputies, with 135 deputies elected for a period of 5 years. 15 seats are permanently reserved for the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan, which is a movement of environmentalists, scientists and other public officials. The Senate (upper house) has 100 senators, 16 of whom are directly appointed by the president, the rest are elected. In each region, hl. the city of Tashkent and the autonomous Karakalpakstan elect six senators each for a term of office of 5 years. Check equzhou to learn more about Uzbekistan political system.
Country name: • Republic of Uzbekistan • O’zbekiston Respublikasi
Composition of the government: Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister:
- ARIPOV Abdulla Nigmatovich (Abdulla Nigmatovič ARIPOV) – prime minister, manages the Secretariat for the development of telecommunications, IT technologies and innovative activities, ensuring information security; Secretariat for the Development of Industry and Basic Industrial Sectors; Secretariat for protection of the rights of citizens of Uzbekistan, temporarily working abroad, and for issues of international cooperation; Secretariat for the organization and coordination of the activities of the Prime Minister’s office assessing applications from entrepreneurs
- RAMATOV Achilbay Jumaniyazovich (Achilbaj Džumanijazovič RAMATOV) – 1st Deputy Prime Minister; manages the Secretariat for issues of comprehensive development of territory, communications, construction and housing and communal management
- QO`CHQOROV Jamshid Anvarovich (Džamšid Anvarovič KUČKAROV) – Deputy Prime Minister; Minister of Economic Development and Poverty Reduction; manages the Secretariat for issues of macroeconomic analyses, structural changes of the economy, development of the financial and banking system, state assets, development of competition, business support and poverty reduction
- GANIYEV Shuxrat Madaminovich (Šuchrat Madaminovič GANIJEV) – Deputy Prime Minister; manages the Secretariat for the Development of Agriculture and the Food Industry
- UMURZOQOV Sardor O`ktamovich (Sardor Uktamovič UMURZAKOV) – Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Investments and Foreign Trade; manages the Secretariat for issues of investment inflow, export support and external economic relations
- ABDUHAKIMOV Aziz Abduqahhorovich (Aziz Abdukachchorovič ABDUCHAKIMOV) – Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Tourism and Cultural Heritage; manages the Secretariat for issues of tourism, sport and culture
- MAHKAMOVA Zulayho Bahriddinovna (MACHKAMOVA Zulaycho Bachriddinovna) – Deputy Prime Minister; Chairman of the State Committee on Family and Women’s Affairs.
Complete overview of government institutions and individual ministers at www.gov.uz
Foreign policy of the country
Uzbekistan is gradually opening up to foreign partners and is beginning to appear confidently on the international stage. Good neighborly relations became a top priority. In this area, there has been a significant improvement in relations, building of trust, unblocking of solutions to long-standing regional conflicts and an increase in trade, to the beginning of real regional cooperation. Cooperation with strategic partners (RF, CN, KR, JN, TR, EU, USA and others) is also in the foreground. Afghanistan occupies a special place in foreign policy. UZ has ambitions to become a regional player, actively participates in all international formats created with the aim of settling the situation in AFG. It also strengthens relations with other Muslim countries. Economic diplomacy and the protection of the interests of citizens abroad are coming to the fore. UZ is a big supporter of multilateral diplomacy. Check recipesinthebox for Uzbekistan defense and foreign policy.
The country is far more active and assertive (it submitted a candidacy for the RLP and an application to join the WTO). The EU’s decision to provide Uzbekistan with GSP+ in 2021 creates other new possibilities for the activation of trade and economic cooperation with European countries. In addition to supporting the reforms being carried out, the EU closely monitors the observance of human rights and freedoms in the country.
President Mirziyoyev promotes a balanced and open foreign policy, the goal of which is not to rely on a single major power. In light of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, global economic and security risks have increased substantially. The Uzbek government has announced that it opposes violence and maintains a “neutral” stance. However, this neutrality is under (not only economic and political) pressure from Russia. The outcome of the war is uncertain, but the economic shock in Russia from the sanctions will have global and regional consequences. As a result of the expected deep recession in Russia, it is necessary to expect negative effects on the economy of Uzbekistan, due to the relatively close trade and investment ties between the two countries.
The population of Uzbekistan as of February 1, 2022 is estimated at 35.27 million. The average population density is 78.6 persons per 1 km 2. Settlement is very uneven. Most of the population lives in the Fergana Valley in the east of the country, in the capital city of Tashkent and in the Tashkent region. Vast areas in the center and west of the country are sparsely populated.
Demographic composition of the population (2020 estimate):
- 0-14 years: 23.19% (males 3,631,693 / females 3,456,750)
- 15-24 years: 16.63% (males 2,601,803 / females 2,481,826)
- 25-54 years: 45.68% (men 6,955,260 / women 7,006,172)
- 55-64 years: 8.63% (men 1,245,035 / women 1,392,263)
- 65 and over: 5.06% (men 768,769 / women 1,025,840)
Source – CIA Factbook
However, according to the Statistical Committee of the UZ, in 2021, 31.1% of the total population in the country was younger than working age, 58% – working age and 10.9% – older than working age.
50.8% of the urban population, 49.2% of the rural population. Men 49.9%, women 50.1% (2021 estimate). Uzbekistan is a multinational country with more than 100 nations and nationalities.
The ethnic composition in Uzbekistan is as follows:
- Uzbeks 84.0%
- Tajiks 4.7%
- Russians 2.8%
- Kazakhs 2.0%
- Karakalpaks 1.9%
- Koreans 0.9%
- Kyrgyz 0.8%
- Tatars 0.5%
- Turkmen 0.5%
- other nationalities 1.9%
Uzbekistan is a religiously tolerant country in principle, while the religious orientation of the population is dominated by Sunni Islam with approx. 96%, followed by Orthodoxy, and there are also other religions such as Catholicism, Judaism, Buddhism, etc. In total, 16 religious denominations are officially registered in the country.