Uruguay Government and Military

By | December 20, 2021

Constitution. – According to the constitution of September 10, 1829, renewed on April 19, 1934, Uruguay is a unitary republic. The president of the republic, irresponsible and immovable, is elected for four years by direct and general vote of the people; he can be re-elected four years after the end of his previous term. He represents the state in its external relations, can dissolve the National Assembly, appoints ministers, is commander of the armed forces. The General Assembly consists of two chambers elected for four years, with general, direct and secret vote: the Chamber of Senators, made up of 30 members aged 30, and the House of Representatives, made up of 99 members aged 25 and over.. The seats in the Senate are divided equally between the two parties that have obtained the highest number of votes. Instead, the representatives are elected according to the proportional system on the basis of district lists. Every citizen from the age of 20, if celibate, 18, if married, is a voter. The ministers, 9 in number, are elected by the president and responsible in front of the chambers. They are chosen from among the two political parties that obtained the highest number of votes in the presidential elections: the majority are assigned six portfolios and three to the minority.

The supreme judiciary is represented by the Supreme Court of Justice of Montevideo made up of 5 judges elected by the assembled Chambers. Primary education is compulsory. In Montevideo there is a university of the republic.

Religion. – The complete separation of the state from the Chìesa was implemented by the constitution of 1919, and maintained thereafter. The religion professed by the majority of the residents is Catholic; in 1930 there were approximately 6000 Protestants and 1800 Anglicans. The Catholic hierarchy includes the archbishopric of Montevideo (apostolic vicariate, 1818; bishopric, 1878; metropolitan, 1879), with suffragans Florida and Melo (formerly Melo, 1897; united seats, 1931), Salto (1897).

Armed forces. – Army. – Permanent army, voluntary recruitment in peacetime, compulsory in wartime. Balanced expenditure for national defense (war and navy) 8.5 million pesos equal to about 40 million Italian lire. It consists of: the active army, the mobile reserve, the territorial reserve. For Uruguay military, please check militarynous.com.

The active army, intended for field operations, includes: the standing army; the standing army reserve; auxiliary forces, made up of civilian and similar personnel of the military administration; the police force. The mobile reserve has the task of reinforcing the field army and, in particular, of waiting in the service of the rear; the territorial reserve, in the event of war, oversees the territory and ensures the functioning of the organs and services indispensable to the country and the fighting forces.

The Uruguayan territory is divided into four military zones, each comprising a mixed brigade (units of the various weapons and services).

The army has a total of: 19 infantry battalions, 9 cavalry regiments, 3 artillery regiments, 4 engineering battalions, 3 air force squadrons and service elements.

Volunteer personnel for the army are recruited throughout the country. Minimum stay, 1 year.

There are also reservist volunteers, who do not perform special stops, but train themselves, in short practical courses, in the training units or in the shooting ranges of the army.

Marina. – The Uruguayan navy is made up of a few antiquated units (gunboats, armed tugs) of little military importance, of which the most important is the Uruguay gunboat (1910: 1150 tons, 21 knots, 2/120, 4/76, 2 launch tubes) used as a training ship. The naval base is Montevideo. The navy has a strength of 600 men, 112 of whom are officers.

Aviation. – Army aviation is placed under the command of the inspector general of the army and the Ministry of National Defense. The main airport is located eight kilometers from Montevideo. There are also some makeshift camps located near Salto, Treinta y Tres, Durazno, Cerro Largo, Rivera and Artigas.

Navy aviation is under the control of the Navy Inspectorate General. It has a military seaplane base on Libertad Island, which is also used as a civil seaplane base. In Uruguay there are no manufacturers of aircraft, engines and aeronautical material in general. These supplies are carried out abroad and mainly in Italy, France and England.

Finances. – Budgets and public debt. – It can be said that by the end of 1935 Uruguay had already managed to overcome the crisis, which had reached its peak in 1932, when the trade deficit and the imbalance between industrial and agricultural prices reached their maximum. Rebalanced the trade balance and payments, repaid in large part the debts deriving from the consolidation of frozen trade receivables, reorganized the state budget, completely extinguished, through the profits of the revaluation of the Bank’s metal reserves, the short-term public debt contracted for tackling the deficit of previous years and reorganizing the issue and circulation of banknotes, the recovery then intensified and consolidated.

As of December 31, 1935, the external public debt amounted to 146.5 million pesos and the consolidated internal debt to 177.0 million.

Money and credit. – The monetary unit is the weight of gold (from 1.697 g to 917 ° 0 fine, equivalent to 1.7510 US dollars); however, gold coins (except for a small commemorative issue from 1930) are not in circulation and banknotes are fiat. The law of 14 August 1935 made the issuing department of the Banca della Repubblica autonomous.

As of December 31, 1935, notes in circulation amounted to 75 million pesos, and on the same date the gold reserve of the Banca della Repubblica included 46 million in gold and 5 in silver.

The main credit institutions are: Banco Comercial, Banco Frances, Supervielle y C.ia, Banco italiano del Uruguay, Banco territorial del Uruguay, Banco popular del Uruguay, Banco Mercantil del Rio de la Plata, la Caja obrera, Banco Credito, Banco Cohanzas locaciones y anticipos. The B. of London and South America, the National City, also carry out notable activities among foreign banks. B. of New York, the Royal B. of Canada, etc.

Uruguay military