Demography and economic geography
State of South America. The country has 3,418,694 residents. (estimate UNDESA, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, of 2014) and a low population density (19.4 residents / km2), while the urbanization rate is high (94%), above all thanks to the metropolitan area of the capital, Montevideo, which at the 2011 census received 1,738. 479 residents, Equal to approximately 53% of the total population. In recent decades, the number of residents has remained virtually unchanged, due to the low birth rate (14.5 ‰ in 2013) and the emigration of young adults; consequently, the percentage of elderly people (13.9%) of the total population is the highest in Latin America. Overall, there are about 500,000 Uruguayans living abroad and their remittances contribute to 1% of GDP. The quality of life is above the continent’s average, thanks also to the high level of social spending: in the Human Development Index the Uruguay ranks 50th out of 187 countries. GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) in 2014 was $ 20,497, but this decent income is not distributed equally.
Recent economic policy choices have allowed the country to brilliantly overcome the global financial crisis of 2008 and to relaunch growth, linked above all to the trend of exports, directed to other MERCOSUR countries (MERcado COmún del SUR) and towards China, and to incoming foreign investments, which have more than tripled over the past few years. In particular, it is Brazil that has intervened in important sectors such as agriculture, oil and banking, while Argentina plays a leading role in river trade, as the communication routes between the two countries are the same and they constitute a strategic resource for both. The current government is also trying to stimulate private investment in infrastructure and to introduce measures aimed at reducing poverty and the degree of inequality in the country. The unemployment rate is low (6.8% in 2014). As far as production activities are concerned, the agricultural sector remains the driving force: the most profitable crop is that of soybeans, widely exported, which with 3 million t (2012) places the Uruguay in eighth place in the world rankings. Another resource of the country is livestock, from which meat, dairy products and wool are obtained for export. The energy sector has good potential for development, as significant oil and natural gas fields have been identified and offshore prospecting is underway. For Uruguay 2017, please check mathgeneral.com.
After the return of democracy in 1984 and especially from the last decade of the 20th century, the Uruguay it has experienced a period of constant economic growth, thanks to a financial policy that has projected the country into a phase of stability and wealth, making it one of the most stable nations of the American subcontinent. The creation and development of state funds for audiovisual productions (FONA, Fondo para el fomento y desarrollo de la producción audiovisuales, founded in 1995) and the birth of state structures aimed at developing an audiovisual policy in the country (ICAU, Instituto del Cine y Audiovisual from Uruguay), guaranteed, after a problematic start, a circulation of capital that allowed the Uruguay to develop a policy of productions and co-productions (the latter especially with other Latin American countries, such as Argentina, Mexico and Colombia) such as to pave the way for a generation of young directors capable of recounting contemporaneity and the transition of a generation to democracy. Thus directors like Pablo Stoll and Juan Pablo Rebella, who had kicked off the new wave of Uruguayan cinema with 25 watts (2001), made Whiskey (2004), which won the Un certain regard section at the Cannes Film Festival.
If the tendency to make intimate, minimal films, capable of recounting the intimate repercussions of a modernity – such as, for example, Ruido (known as Noise) by Marcelo Bertalmío (audience award at the Valladolid International Festival in 2005), El cuarto de Leo (2009) by Enrique Buchichio, or Confesiones de un taxiista (2011) by Valeria Puig – constitutes the first recognizable trend in the new wave of Uruguay cinema, other authors continue the tradition of surreal and grotesque cinema that derives partly from the literary school of Latin American magic realism: directors such as César Charlone and Enrique Fernández (authors of El baño del Papa, 2007) or Álvaro Brechner (who made Mal día para pescar, 2009, and Mr. Kaplan, 2014).
Genre cinema has also experienced a further impulse, as evidenced by the new urban comedy (Gigante, 2009, by Adrián Biniez), the new horror represented by La casa muda (2010; La casa muta) by Gustavo Hernández, one of the great successes internationals of Uruguayan cinema; or as the success of an animated film like Anina still testifies(2013) by Alfredo Soderguit, animated transposition of a famous children’s book by Sergio López Suárez, which paved the way for an animation school capable of dealing with the major international trends. The economic development of the Uruguayan film industry is also due, as already mentioned, to a constant policy of co-productions, which has allowed private or publicly owned production companies to develop a policy of financing for local productions. Among the most important films co-produced by the Uruguay we highlight Historía del miedo (2014) by Argentine director Benjamín Naishtat, the documentaries Ojos bien abiertos (2010) by Gonzalo Arijón, Ella (s) (2010) by David Baute.