Uruguay Demographics 1975

By | December 20, 2021

Population. – According to the last census carried out in 1975, it amounted to 2.758.915 residents, 80% of which concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of increase was 1.2% in the period 1970-1976. Registry estimates of 1977 gave 2,814,000 residents.

Economic conditions. – The economy of the Uruguay it is still essentially based on the breeding of cattle (10.2 million heads in 1977) and sheep (17.8 million), favored by natural pastures which cover more than 75% of the territory. However, agriculture has been developing more and more especially in the southern and western areas, along the coasts of the Río de la Plata and Río Uruguay. Cereals prevail (wheat 538,000 ha and 5 million q in 1976; corn 177,000 ha and 2 million q), while oil crops have acquired increasing importance in recent years (sunflower 126,000 ha and 770,000 q in 1976). Despite the serious political situation in the country after 1968, government efforts are mainly directed towards greater diversification of the agriculture to increase exports, still too exclusively dominated by meat (US $ 144 million in 1974), wool (US $ 70 million) and leather (US $ 24 million). Industrial activity, already hampered by the lack of raw materials and fuels, which must be imported, has been reduced even more since 1971; the only active sector is the textile one (wool and cotton mills). Communications have not improved either and their structural deficiencies contribute to making the recovery and economic development of the country difficult. already hampered by the lack of raw materials and fuels, which must be imported, it has been reduced even more since 1971; the only active sector is the textile one (wool and cotton mills). Communications have not improved either and their structural deficiencies contribute to making the recovery and economic development of the country difficult. already hampered by the lack of raw materials and fuels, which must be imported, it has been reduced even more since 1971; the only active sector is the textile one (wool and cotton mills). Communications have not improved either and their structural deficiencies contribute to making the recovery and economic development of the country difficult. For Uruguay business, please check cheeroutdoor.com.

History. – The blancos, in power since 1958, they were unable to heal the country’s difficult economic situation but managed to narrowly prevail in the 1962 elections, which brought F. Harrison to the presidency. He continued the “Operation Uruguay”, an ambitious ten-year plan launched in 1961 with the support of the Alliance for Progress. The plan proved powerless in the face of the financial chaos that caused chronic unrest in the labor force, capital flight, galloping inflation with all its consequences. The state, burdened by a ruinous welfare system, was unable to meet its commitments and delayed the payment of salaries and pensions. Tax evasion, calculated at around 65% in 1964, and intense smuggling across the uncontrollable borders with Brazil and Argentina, they dealt the final blow to the ruined Uruguayan economy. The crisis of agriculture and livestock (meat and wool) transformed the United States, compared in the past to Switzerland, into a poor and disorganized country, struggling with confused reformist ideas that were practically unattainable due to oligarchic resistance. In 1965 the Uruguay he found himself on the verge of bankruptcy, no longer able to meet his foreign obligations: the Banco de la República was embroiled in a series of scandals and the Treasury announced that its coffers were exhausted. Furthermore, an exceptional drought dried up the countryside, making the situation even more precarious. the Banco de la República was embroiled in a series of scandals and the Treasury announced that its coffers were exhausted. Furthermore, an exceptional drought dried up the countryside, making the situation even more precarious. the Banco de la República was embroiled in a series of scandals and the Treasury announced that its coffers were exhausted. Furthermore, an exceptional drought dried up the countryside, making the situation even more precarious.

On June 10, 1965, the deputy J. Battle proposed to abandon the system of collective government – considered exemplary democratic – presided over by W. Beltrán and to restore the presidential republic. In November 1966 this proposal was accepted by the electorate, who thus condemned, after fifteen years of experiment, the Colegiado. Retired General O. Gestido, candidate of the Colorado Party, was installed as President of the Republic. The change of government system, however, did not bring about the improvements that everyone expected, and still less did it modify the old structures. Then arose and developed an urban guerrilla movement (70% of the population is concentrated in the cities) promoted by the Tupamaros (from Tupac-Amaru, Peruvian martyr of South American independence), a group made up of intellectuals and proletarians supported by students and elements of the bourgeoisie. Following the sudden death of President Gestido (1967), power was assumed by J. Pacheco Areco who fought the guerrilleros in every possible way, dissolving the left parties and suspending the opposition newspapers. The coups of the tupamaros, sometimes sensational, intensified in 1969 with the kidnapping of personalities and diplomats, attacks on barracks, prisons and banks.

The new President of the Republic JM Bordaberry (March 1, 1972) decreed the “state of internal war”, as an anti-guerrilla function, and accepted the protection of the progressive military. Subsequently Bordaberry, under pressure from the conservatives and the right-wing military, dissolved the Chambers (June 27, 1973), replacing them with a Council of State and sanctioning the definitive end of the democratic regime in Uruguay. The reactions to the coup, defined as a self-coup, were violent: the Convention Nacional de Trabajadores (CNT) proclaimed an all-out strike of workers and public transport, paralyzing the life of the nation; public and private employees joined the strike and the students occupied the university. The government reacted vigorously, causing troops to intervene and making thousands of arrests. The Church also intervened, appealing for harmony and asking for political amnesty. The CNT was dissolved and its leaders took refuge in neighboring Argentina or in hiding. The iron repression led to the arrest of the leader of the left-wing Frente Amplio coalition, L. Seregni, and of Senator JP Terra, president of the Christian Democrats. The situation moved towards normality after a substantial increase in wages and the revision of the law on the right to strike (July 24) which also provided for control over the use of union funds. The attitude of the labor force, which abandoned the intransigent positions, it avoided the danger of civil war for the country and overshadowed the ideological rift that existed within the armed forces. The movement of tupamaros, one of the most organized in Latin America, practically diluted following the repression and the disappearance or death of its main leaders: R. Sendic and P. Larena. persisted; the obstacles created by the economic situation were added to those caused by the international situation, resulting in the precipitate of the crisis in the spring of 1976.

A coup (June 12) forced President Juán María Bordaberry to resign. The vice president Alberto Demicheli was temporarily installed in his place. The presidency was assumed on 1 September by Aparicio Méndez, elected by the Council of the Nation, a new body made up mainly of military personnel. The first decree of the new president (2 September) deprived all members of the parties and trade unions of the past regimes of their political rights; in April 1979 there were numerous arrests of communist militants, including party secretary LL Poniachik.

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