Uruguay Demographics 1953

By | December 20, 2021

Population. – In 1953 the population of the Uruguay was 2,590,158 residents (13.9 per km 2), climbed in 1958 to 2,800,000 residents.

Economic conditions. – While livestock still remains the main resource of the Uruguay, agriculture is increasingly being given a boost; in the Rocha area, reclamation of 650,000 ha has been started and 22,000 ha have already been cultivated. The arable land, which in 1949-50 extended over 1,404,000 ha (7.5% of the territorial surface), in 1957 occupied 2,205,000 ha, equal to 12% of the territorial surface. Wheat went from 545,000 ha in 1951 (prod. 780,000 q) to 296,000 ha in 1960 (prod. 2,140,000 q). In 1960, maize gave a product of 890,000 q out of 267,000 ha. The rice extended over 14,000 ha (prod. 490,000 q); oats occupied 83,000 ha for a production of 230,000 quintals. Among the industrial plants, flax was grown, again in 1960, on 98,000 ha (prod. 500,000 q of seeds), sunflower on 185,000 ha (prod. 800,000 q). The vine, grown on 20,000 ha, yielded (1959) 940,000 hl of wine. In 1959, 410,000 q of citrus fruit were produced; natural meadows and pastures decreased from 13,966,000 ha in 1951 to 12,170,000 ha in 1960. A slight decline can be seen at the same time for some kinds of livestock; in 1954-55 there were, in fact, 25,778,000 sheep, 7,819,000 cattle and 667,000 horses, which in the following year fell to 23,303,000, 7,433,000 and 557,000 respectively. On the other hand, pigs increased for the same period, from 235,000 to 381,000. The damage caused by the terrible floods of April 1960, which in addition to destroying most of the railway and road network, devastated crops and caused the death of about 2 million head of cattle. For Uruguay economics and business, please check businesscarriers.com.

The energy installed in 1959 was 335,000 kW (128,000 hydroelectric) and the energy produced in 1958 was 1237 million kWh (of which 760 million were water). Recently an oil field was discovered in San Jacinto, near Montevideo, at a depth of 1200 m, the first in the U .; the value of the deposit, however, is not yet ascertained.

In 1951 the wool mill had 86,000 spindles and 748 looms; the cotton mill, in 1959, had 121,000 spindles and 3184 looms. The cement factory, in 1959, produced 422,000 tons.

Communications. – The merchant navy has 40 ships for 75,726 tons of tonnage. The railway network is 3,084 km long; the construction of a 350 km power line from Montevideo to Rincón de Baigonia is planned.

Foreign trade. – In the five-year period 1956-60, the average annual value of imports was $ 197.6 million and that of exports $ 141 million. 39% of exports are given by meat and derivatives. The countries to which trade is most active are Holland (especially for exports), the USA, Great Britain, Brazil and West Germany. Among the importing countries, the one that has most increased its purchases was the People’s Republic of China, which in the last year has gone from 178,000 dollars in purchases to 4 million dollars, represented by meat and leather.

Finances. – The state budget for 1958 shows revenues of 700 million pesos, of which 170 from direct taxes and 342 from indirect taxes, and expenses of 790 million, of which 73 for defense 32 for education, 66 for health. At 31 December 1958 the public debt amounted to 1,440 million pesos, of which 1,352 internal and 88 external.

In December 1959, a new exchange system was introduced in the United States, intended to replace free market rates with exchange transactions; the government is authorized to levy taxes of up to 300% on imports and from 5 to 50% on exports of certain products. Up to that date, exports were divided into four categories and imports into three, with different exchange rates for each of them; at the end of 1958 the exchange rate was set at 3.46 pesos per US dollar for the main exports and 2.10 pesos for the main imports, while for other exports the exchange rates ranged from 2.81 to 4.10 pesos per dollar. USA The current exchange rate is 11.03 pesos for one US dollar; on 7 October 1960 the institution of the weight parity was agreed with the International Monetary Fund, fixed at 7.40 for one US dollar

The credit system is divided into the Banca della Repubblica, which has separate sections for issuing money and for banking services, in a number of private commercial banks, in the postal savings bank and in a mortgage bank.

History. – The solid democratic traditions of the Uruguay have never denied themselves and despite the dominance of the colorado (liberal) party, the opposition, represented by the conservative blanco party, has always been able to make his voice heard in the affairs of the country. The good economic and financial conditions of the Uruguay, the degree of prosperity of its citizens, the developed civic spirit and the political tranquility of the country have made it deserve the name of “American Switzerland”. But the most surprising reform the Uruguay he carried it out in the constitutional field basing it on the collegial system of government. President Andrés M. Trueba, who succeeded Luis Battle Berres (1947-50), submitted the new Constitution to a popular plebiscite (December 16, 1951) which, approved, entered into force on March 1, 1952. It establishes that the executive power will be exercised by a government council called Colegiado, composed of nine members representing the majority and minority parties proportionately. The first general elections based on the amended Constitution took place on November 28, 1954 and once again gave the victory to the colorados who received the six majority seats while the blancos were assigned the remaining three seats. The office of head of the Consejo Nacional de Gobierno is exercised, on an annual rotation, by four members of the majority party who are part of the Colegiado and it was hired up to now in 1955 by Luis Battle Berres (who had been president of the Republic from 1947 to 1951), by Alberto F. Zubiria (1956), by Artur Lezama (1957), by Carlos Fischer (1958). During the last two governments there was a general deterioration in the economic situation of the country which resulted in an attempted rebellion (6 October 1957) and in a series of strikes caused by inflation and unemployment. The crisis that suddenly hit the Uruguay it was attributed to the fall in the prices of meat and wool in international markets and to the contraction of exports, despite the active trade maintained with the countries of the Communist bloc. The general elections of November 30, 1958 revealed the discontent of the Uruguayan masses who brought them to power, after 94 years of uninterrupted government of the colorados, the blanco party, which thus had its first head of the Consejo de gobierno in the person of Martin R. Echegoyen (March 1, 1959). In Montevideo, on February 18, 1960, the treaty was signed which created the Free Trade Zone to which Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Peru belong, in addition to the United States.

After the floods of April 1960, the plans envisaged for agricultural and livestock improvement (with the technical assistance of FAO) and for public works should quickly revive the Uruguayan economy, all the more so if production will find sufficient outlets in the ‘abroad. On 1 March 1960, Benito Nardone, the son of Italian emigrants, was inaugurated as president of the Consejo. He was replaced by Eduardo Victor Haedo (1 March 1961), who will remain in office for one year. An Inter-American Economic Conference was held in Punta del Este from 5 to 17 August, organized by the OAS (see Pan-Americanism, in this App.), The results of which will be decisive for the future of Latin America.

Uruguay economics and business