Uruguay Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022
Basic data
Capital Montevideo
Population 3.49 million
Language Spanish (official)
Religion 68% Christianity
State system presidential republic
Head of State Luis Alberto Lacalle Pou
Head of government Luis Alberto Lacalle Pou
Currency name Uruguayan peso (UYU)

Uruguay Basic Information

Time shift -4 hours (in summer -5 hours)
Economy 2021
Nominal GDP (billion USD) 83.1
Economic growth (%) 4.2
Inflation (%) 7,8
Unemployment (%) 9.4

Diplomatic relations between Czechoslovakia and the Eastern Republic of Uruguay were established on August 16, 1921. The first Uruguayan diplomat sent was the first ever representative of a Latin American country in the former Czechoslovakia, and – unlike most other Latin American countries – diplomatic relations between the two countries were never interrupted. After the division of Czechoslovakia, the Uruguayan government immediately recognized the Czech Republic and established diplomatic relations with it effective from 1 January. 1993.

Uruguay is one of the most developed countries in South America – the level of democracy and freedom is high, the lowest level of corruption on the continent is recorded here. Uruguay is characterized by a stable and transparent environment for exports and investments, a long-term consistent economic plan of the government. As a small and open economy, Uruguay is one of the main supporters of the EU-MERCOSUR trade agreement.

The country is sometimes referred to as the “Silicon Valley” of Latin America. With a population of million, this small country is second (after Mexico) in terms of effort and investment in artificial intelligence. Uruguay has been developing a system for a long time, thanks to which the country is becoming a research center of world importance.

Uruguay exports the most to China (27% of exports), then to Brazil (14%), the EU (14%). Argentina accounts for only 5% of all exports (but that says more about the level of protectionist measures in Argentina). The largest export items are beef, cereals, dairy products and cellulose. On the other hand, industrial products (cars, electronic devices, etc.), crude oil and fertilizers are imported.

This Summary Territorial Information is processed for a country that is so-called accredited. The information is provided in an abbreviated form.

Basic information about the territory


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Eastern Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay)

The Eastern Republic of Uruguay is a secular, independent and sovereign state with a democratic and republican form of government. Uruguay’s first constitution dates from 1830 and remained in force until 1918. The current constitutional text, approved in 1967, underwent reforms in 1996 and 2004. The executive power consists of the president and vice president. In accordance with the valid electoral system, citizens elect representatives in the two chambers of the parliament every five years through universal, direct and compulsory elections. The President and Vice-President of the Republic are elected directly. Re-election of the president is not allowed. Check diseaseslearning to learn more about Uruguay political system.

Since March 2020, the country has been ruled by President Luise Lacalle Pou of the Partido Nacional. The incoming government was composed of five different parties.

Foreign policy of the country

For Uruguay, as a small country, the economic level of foreign policy is the most important. Due to the delay in signing the agreement between MERCOSUR and the European Union, the government of President Lacalle Pou is increasingly focusing on deepening relations with China. China is Uruguay’s largest trading partner, has signed over 30 bilateral agreements with it, and considers it a strategic partner. Check themotorcyclers for Uruguay defense and foreign policy.

With the arrival of the new administration in 2020, there was a transformation of foreign policy in relation to Venezuela. Uruguay thus came closer to the discourse of the Lima Group. Uruguay also withdrew from the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) in March 2020.

During his inauguration, Lacalle Pou already highlighted the need to strengthen the MERCOSUR regional bloc. On the other hand, however, he mentioned the importance of flexibility and the ability of members to conclude bilateral agreements with third countries at their discretion. It is crucial for the country to continue implementing the trade agreement with the European Union.

In 2020, Uruguay became the first country in the world to ratify the International Labor Organization Convention on Violence and Harassment of 2019 (No. 190).


Number of inhabitants, density per km², share of the economically active population

  • 3,474,000 inhabitants (2020), while in 1950 it was only 2,239,000
  • 19.6 inhabitants per km2
  • 64.2% of the population aged 15-64

Uruguay is a highly concentrated country, over million people live in Montevideo and its surroundings. A total of 91.8% of the population resides in cities.

Average annual increase in the population and its demographic composition

  • population growth 3.4/1000 inhabitants per year
  • birth rate 13.91/1000 inhabitants
  • death rate 9.3/1000 population
  • infant mortality rate 11.8/1000 births
  • average life expectancy 77.9 years

Nationality composition

  • 93% European descent (mainly descendants of Spaniards and Italians, European Jews)
  • 6% half-breeds
  • 1% mulatto

Religious composition

  • Roman Catholic (66%)
  • Protestant (2%)
  • Jewish (2%)
  • no religion (30%)

Official language

  • Spanish

Other languages ​​used

  • Portuguese
  • brazileiro (Spanish-Portuguese mix on the Uruguayan-Brazilian border)
  • to a small extent Italian, English, French and German