Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The United States of America is a federal presidential republic. The government operates on a system of separated powers. The federal executive branch is headed by the president, who is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The US presidential election is always held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The term of office lasts four years and may be repeated for a maximum of two electoral terms. As of January 2021, the President of the USA is Democrat Joe Biden. The executor of the legislative power is the bicameral Congress, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives has 435 members who are directly elected by the citizens of the US states, and elections are held every two years. The number of representatives of each state depends on its population. The Senate has 100 members, each state is represented by two Senators elected every six years. At the apex of the judicial power pyramid in the US is the Supreme Court, followed by a system of lower federal courts. The nine-judge Supreme Court plays an important role in legal as well as political issues and is established directly by the US Constitution. Judges are appointed by the President of the United States, and nominations go through the Senate’s confirmation process. The performance of the function is for an unlimited time. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial instance of the USA, its decision cannot be appealed. The US Constitution mandates the creation of lower federal courts – there are 94 district courts in the US, the Tax Court, the Courts of Appeals, etc. The US is a textbook example of a two-party system in which the two main political parties (Democrats and Republicans) alternate in power. The last presidential and congressional elections were held on November 3, 2020, when the Democratic candidate Joe Biden became the 46th president of the United States. On the same day that the presidential election took place, US citizens also elected new federal members of the House of Representatives and senators. The Democratic Party gained the upper hand in both chambers of Congress. Check diseaseslearning to learn more about United States political system.
Members of President Joe Biden’s Cabinet (“Cabinet”) are Vice President Kamala Harris and the 15 Secretaries listed below (“Secretaries”). Ministers are nominated by the president, but they can take office only after approval by the Senate of the US Congress (by a simple majority of the senators present).
Composition of the government (2022):
Secretary of State – Anthony Blinken
Secretary of the Treasury – Janet Yellen
Secretary of Defense – Lloyd Austin
Attorney General – Merrick Garland
Secretary of Interior – Deb Haaland
Secretary of Agriculture – Tom Vilsack
Secretary of Commerce – Gina Raimondo
Secretary of Labor – Marty Walsh
Secretary of Health and Human Services – Xavier Becerra
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development – Marcia Fudge
Secretary of Transportation – Pete Buttigieg
Secretary of Energy – Jennifer Granholm
Secretary of Veteran Affairs – Denis McDonough
Secretary of Homeland Security – Alejandro Mayorkas
Secretary of Education – Miguel Cardona
Foreign policy of the country
American foreign policy has a global character. The United States of America remains the world’s only superpower with unquestionable influence in the fields of international politics, military, and economics. The economic power of the US is unprecedented, the country’s economy produces almost a quarter of the world’s wealth, and the US dollar is the world’s official reserve currency. Militarily, the US remains the only superpower in the world. US defense spending accounts for about a third of all world defense spending. The US has the largest naval fleet in the world. The size of the US Navy makes it possible to have a military presence anywhere in the world. The USA is a member of the most important world organizations – for example, a founding member of the UN and one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, a member of the G8, G-20, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or a member of the North Atlantic Alliance (NATO). Regarding the current events in relation to the foreign trade and economic policy of the US administration of J. Biden towards the EU, it is expected that the new US administration will place more emphasis on the transatlantic link (also with regard to the current crisis in Ukraine). Check themotorcyclers for United States defense and foreign policy.
The response to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, which began on February 24, 2022 and resulted in a large-scale armed conflict, has become a new framework for transatlantic relations. There is close coordination between the EU and the USA and the search for a common approach to solving the security situation in Europe and ensuring energy security in connection with the instability of energy raw material markets, especially natural gas. Ensuring independence from supplies of energy raw materials from Russia has become an urgent topic. The US banned the import of oil, natural gas and coal from the Russian Federation in April 2022. The European Commission presented a plan to reduce energy dependence on Russia by two thirds. The EU declares its readiness to support the efforts of European states to diversify the import of energy raw materials, especially natural gas, with the aim of ending withdrawal from Russia, but at the same time warns, that securing alternative sources and building the necessary infrastructure will be a process lasting several years. Following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the US and the EU are closely coordinating the adoption of anti-Russian sanctions. They limit access to capital, for example, and target energy, transport, trade and the Russian banking sector.
The US census takes place once every ten years. The last one took place in 2020. The population of the United States of America according to the Census Bureau is 331,449,281 (2020 figure).
The US is the third most populous nation in the world, accounting for approximately 4.25% of the world’s total population. The population density of the USA is approximately 36 inhabitants per square kilometer. For comparison, the Czech Republic has 136 inhabitants per square kilometer. The 2020 Census Bureau reports the composition of the US population: by age, the largest group among Americans is youth under 18 (28.3%), working age (18-64) is 55.2%, and the population over 65 is 16.5%.
An analysis of the 2020 Census results shows that the US population is more multiracial and diverse than it was during the last census in 2010. But this is also due to the fact that more and more Americans identify with two or more races or ethnicities (the number the population who identify with two or more races or ethnicities has tripled since the last census, from nine million people in 2010 to 3 million in 2020). The population of the USA is therefore diverse, whites predominate with roughly 57%, African Americans make up 12.1%, Asians 5.9%, Indians 1.3%. This data also includes 18.5% of the population who consider themselves to be one of these groups and also Hispanic or Latino (the population of Hispanic origin reports any race, the issue of race is separate from Hispanic origin). The fastest growing groups are Hispanics and Asians. 4,
Religion plays an important role in the USA, Christianity prevails, which according to various sources is claimed by 65-70% of the population, Protestants dominate within Christianity. The most widely spoken language is English (78%), followed by Spanish (13%), in the US it is not an official language at the federal level.