Corruption is far in Ukraine widespread and affects many areas of society, which negatively affects the economic and democratic development of the country effect. In 2018, Ukraine ranked 126th (out of 180) according to Transparency International’s CPI survey. According to statistical surveys, two thirds of Ukrainians have already faced corruption. Economic corruption and, above all, political corruption are a structural problem and affect not only the government but also parliament as a whole, political parties, state authorities and the judiciary, Police and local administrations. After the official entry of the President Petro Porošenko several were now laws to combat corruption (anti-corruption legislative package “of 14 October 2014) adopted. 2015 National Anti-Corruption Bureau was established, its director after a long application process was Artem Sytnyk. The fight against corruption, however, designed to slow On April 11, 2019, 38 judges were appointed to the High Anti-Corruption Court of Ukraine after a selection process started its work on September 5, 2019.
According to the Ukrainian constitution, the country is a free and democratic state in which human rights are protected. However, there are currently still inadequacies in the implementation and granting of human rights in Ukraine, particularly in the areas of torture, racism and xenophobia, and treatment of refugees and social (LGBTQ) or ethnic minorities (Roma). In 2020 Freedom House classified Ukraine as “partly free”.
The human rights situation in Crimea and in the territories of the so-called People’s Republics of Luhansk and Doneck, as well as on the front line, is of particular concern. In Crimea, critical representatives of the Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar minorities are being persecuted by paramilitaries and Russian state institutions. In Russia politically motivated show trials are also being conducted against Ukrainian citizens (e.g. against the film director arrested in Crimea in 2014 Oleh Sentsov and the activist Alexander Kolčenko. Sentsov and Kolčenko were sentenced to 20 and 10 years in prison, respectively). The Ukrainian pilot Nadija Savčenko, whose case made waves in the media, was released in exchange with two Russian prisoners.
On September 7, 2019, the prisoner exchange “35 for 35” took place between Russia and Ukraine. There were 24 sailors among Ukrainian citizens whose ship was rammed and shot at by Russian border guards in the Kerch Strait on November 25, 2018. Eleven political prisoners were also released, including the director Oleg Sentsov and Oleksandr Kolčenko. In December 2019, another 203 prisoners were released as part of the exchange.
According to estatelearning, Ukraine is a country located in Eastern Europe. The Ukrainian foreign policy was designed differently since independence in 1991 under six presidents to date. The foreign policy course of the first President Leonid Kravčuk (1991-94) was characterized by maintaining independence, distancing himself from Russia and drawing closer to the USA. In addition, under Kravčuk the first bilateral agreements on territorial integrity and national minorities were signed (December 1991 with Hungary, May 1993 with Poland and Slovakia).
Leonid Kučmas (1994-2004) Foreign policy is described by political scientists as the “politics of vacillation”. Kučma defined his foreign policy actions as “multi-vector policy”, which was aimed at combining the Western integration of Ukraine with well-functioning Russian-Ukrainian relations. Although he proclaimed the rapprochement between the country and the EU and NATO, no serious domestic steps were taken to achieve these goals.
Viktor Juščenko, on the other hand, pursued a clear foreign policy line. European integration and rapprochement with NATO were among his priorities. Viktor Janukovyč attached great importance to relations with Russia, but initially announced that he would support European integration. The long-prepared association agreement with the EU was not signed by Janukovyč.
According to different estimates, between 3 million and 7 million Ukrainians work legally and illegally abroad. The main reasons for emigration are the difficult economic situation in the country. The unemployment rate has risen sharply since the annexation of Crimea and the war in the Donbas. A particularly difficult situation arose after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Many Ukrainians of working age left the country in search of new jobs. The most popular countries for Ukrainian migrant workers are mainly old (Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece) and new (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) EU countries and Russia. The Labor migration led to major changes in the Ukrainian social structure. Since the majority of migrants are women (around two thirds) who stay abroad for several years, many families fall apart. Children often grow up with their grandparents. The situation is particularly precarious in rural areas, where it is even more difficult to find work. The labor migration also changed the social structure of the village, so that often only the elderly and children can be seen on the streets.