The territory of the Soviet Federative Republic of the Ukraine (USSR), after the annexation (1945) of the Ukraine western, northern Bukovina, part of Bessarabia and Ukraine Transcarpatica, was further enlarged in 1954 with the annexation of Crimea, which was part of the Russian RFSS, and reached an area of 601,000 km 2 in which 45 million live. of the people living there. The richest region is still the central one of the forest-steppes on the right bank of the Dnieper, which includes the agricultural region with intensive cultivation and the industrial region of Donetz (Donbass), where a pop density is reached. of 100 residents per km 2. The role of the Ukraine in the Soviet economy it is of considerable importance. Its economy was already flourishing before the Second World War; the Donetz region, the old Donbass, had turned into a powerful industrial center. For Ukraine 1998, please check constructmaterials.com.
Another industrial center was the Dnieper valley; Char′kov, Kiev and Odessa possessed the most varied industries. After the enormous destruction caused by the German invasion and the reconquest, the factories and mines were rebuilt and resumed their activity; two large gas pipelines were built to carry Dašava’s methane to Kiev and Minsk and Leningrad respectively. Many automobile routes were traced, and much research was resumed (with the method of seismic prospecting) to increase the production of oil and methane; coal production also developed. A large hydraulic complex was built near Kachovka; many new irrigation canals have increased agricultural production; of particular importance is the new Ingulec irrigation system and the Simferopol artificial lake; the great canal of Northern Crimea is important. The Ukraine it can currently be considered economically and demographically the second among the federative republics of the USSR. While representing only one fortieth of the Union per territory, it contributes 25% to total industrial production; produces more than 20% of all wheat; owns 20% of the pigs; it produces 75% of all sugar, and collects a fifth of the population.
The Ukraine it can be considered an intensely industrialized country with modern and rational agriculture. Agriculture finds in the black lands a factor of primary importance; 1/5 of the cultivated area throughout the USSR belongs to the Ukraine
There are 15,200 collective farms; 1,400 stations for agricultural machinery and tractors. 4.25 million ha are dedicated to the cultivation of wheat, with a unitary production which, from 17 q per ha, in 1950, has risen in many areas to 33 q per ha. Corn (7.4 million hectares cultivated), used above all for animals, also has a special place. Other cereals: millet, oats, rye. The sugar beet (1.2800.000 cultivated hectares) is of great importance, the product of which is about 1/3 of the production of the whole USSR; 3.136.000 t of crystalline sugar were produced in 1956, compared to 1.550.000 t in 1940. Vegetables, legumes, vines, potatoes, sunflowers, and for some years koR saghiz are grown with increasing success., plant used for the manufacture of synthetic rubber. Linen (long fiber), hemp and cotton are also widely cultivated. Agriculture therefore offers many raw materials to various industries, including: oenology (in Crimea), which produces fine wines similar to French Champagne; the molitoria, the preserves of fruit, vegetables and legumes; perfumes and various chemical industries, sugar refineries, as well as textile industries (cotton, linen and silk mills).
But particularly impressive in the Ukraine postwar production is mining and related industries. In the first place is the coal of the Donbass; followed by iron (red-brown hematite from Krivoj Rog), manganese, phosphorite, graphite, cinnabar, petroleum (in the Carpathians), many salts and abundant combustible gases. The two main branches of industry are the production of cast iron and steel. The Ukraine it produces more than half of the iron ore, more than a third of the steel and rolled products, more than a third of the coal produced in the USSR.
The mechanical industry and other derivatives are very varied for their products: agricultural tractors (Kiev, Krivoj Rog); steels (Stalino); shipyards (Nikolaev); oil refining (L′vov); pharmaceutical chemicals (Kiev).
Other industries: synthetic rubber (Kiev); glassworks (Gomel ′, Lisišansk, Konstantinovka); cements (Amvrosjevka, Kramatorsk, etc.); plastics (Kiev). With industrial development, the production of motive energy has considerably increased; hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants produced 30 billion kWh in 1956, compared to 14 billion in 1950. In 1960 a steam turbine of an atomic power plant with a power of 420,000 kW was under construction in Char′cov.