Ukraine in 1991

By | December 24, 2021

Formerly a federated republic within the USSR, since 24 August 1991 it constitutes an independent republic adhering to the Commonwealth of Independent States, in whose foundation it took part on 21 December 1991, together with ten other republics of the former USSR. It includes Crimea, which was part of the Russian Federation until 1954, and which has been an autonomous republic since 12 February 1991. Administratively the Ukraine it is divided into 24 provinces, an autonomous region (Crimea) and a metropolitan area (Kiev). Covering an area of ​​603,700 km 2, the Ukraine in 1994 it had an estimated population of 52,135,000 residents (86.3 residents / km 2). The capital is Kiev (2,616,000 residents in 1990). At the 1989 census, Ukrainians represented 72.7% of the total population.

The Ukrainian element largely predominates in the western regions of the country, especially in Galicia (90%) and Volhynia (96.5%), while the eastern regions, adjacent to Russia, and the coastal regions (Crimea, Odessa) present a composition more diverse ethnicity. The Russians (11.3 million) are in the majority in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (where only 13% of the population is Ukrainian), as well as in the Donetz (Donbass) mining basin and in the Lugansk province. Ethnic minorities include 324,000 Moldovans, 219,000 Poles, 163,000 Hungarians, 134,000 Romanians and 46,000 Tatars. For Ukraine 2015, please check

Traditionally considered as the former granary of the Russian Empire, the Ukraine, endowed with large extensions of fertile ” black lands ”, has a rich and diversified agriculture. In 1992 agriculture and livestock made up 22.5% of the value of the republic’s net material product, self-sufficient in almost all sectors of agricultural production. Main crops: wheat (21.8 million t in 1993), sugar beet (33.7), potatoes (21) and various vegetable crops. For Ukraine business, please check

In 1991, a transfer program to private ownership of socialized farms was launched. The difficulties in implementing the reform and the general economic turmoil that marked the start of the independence phase had a heavy impact on the agricultural sector, whose productivity levels underwent a marked downsizing during the first half of the 1990s.

Mining and industrial activities, traditional cornerstones of the Ukrainian economy, provided 50.7% of the net material product value in 1992. Heavy industry (steel, metallurgy, chemical) and mechanical (construction of locomotives and railway materials), tractors, cars and machinery in general) still draws on the rich local deposits of iron ores (60 million tons of metal contained in 1990) and coal deposits (Kuzbass: 155 million tons extracted in 1990). Self-sufficient as regards hard coal, the Ukraine it has to meet the needs of its heavy industries with substantial imports of other energy sources (in particular with the import of oil and natural gas). The Ukraine has five nuclear power plants, and in 1993 33.3% of the the energy produced was of nuclear origin; but after the serious accident at the Chernobyl power plant in 1986, the validity of nuclear energy programs was called into question. The arms industry, traditionally very important, is in the process of reconversion towards non-military productions.

The secondary sector was also hit, in the early 1990s, by a severe structural crisis, which resulted in a sharp decline in production. Another symptom of the crisis is the chronic deficit of the trade balance. In 1990 trade with the other republics of the former USSR accounted for about 80% of Ukraine’s total foreign trade. After 1991 the Ukraine it has tried to intensify relations with non-traditional commercial partners, but remains strongly conditioned by its dependence on the Russian Republic, especially in the field of energy supplies.

Ukraine vegetable crops