Ukraine Geography

By | December 24, 2021

Federated Republic of the Soviet Union, more precisely known as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, or USSR. Ukraine measures 443,080 sq. Km., including 8419 sq. Km. which constitute the surface of the autonomous republic of Moldova. Ukraine occupies the entire south-western part of the USSR and borders to the north with White Russia and the RSFSR, which also limits it to the east; to the west it borders with Poland and to the south-west, along the course of the Dniester, with Romania. From the mouth of the Dnestr to the region of Taganrog, therefore not far west of the mouth of the Don, it is bathed by the Black Sea and the Azov Sea. A short isthmus connects it to the Crimean Peninsula, the latter occupied by the autonomous republic of Crimea. However, the physical boundary corresponds to the political one only in the southwest, and, of course, to the south at the sea; elsewhere there are only conventional boundaries. There are therefore islands of Great Russians within the more properly Ukrainian territories, as one encounters many Ukrainian islands in Muscovite Russia. This is a consequence of the frequent changes that have occurred in the past on the territorial composition, with continuous displacements of borders. The supporters of Ukrainian independence, however, assign to this region an area almost double, that is of 830,000 square kilometers, which extends from Przemyśl, in Galicia, to the Caucasus, and from north to south from the Pripeć basin (Pripyat ′ dei Russi) to the Black Sea. as many Ukrainian islands meet in Moscow Russia. This is a consequence of the frequent changes that have occurred in the past on the territorial composition, with continuous displacements of borders. The supporters of Ukrainian independence, however, assign to this region an area almost double, that is of 830,000 square kilometers, which extends from Przemyśl, in Galicia, to the Caucasus, and from north to south from the Pripeć basin (Pripyat ′ dei Russi) to the Black Sea. as many Ukrainian islands meet in Moscow Russia. This is a consequence of the frequent changes that have occurred in the past on the territorial composition, with continuous displacements of borders. The supporters of Ukrainian independence, however, assign to this region an area almost double, that is of 830,000 square kilometers, which extends from Przemyśl, in Galicia, to the Caucasus, and from north to south from the Pripeć basin (Pripyat ′ dei Russi) to the Black Sea.

Ukraine is a large plain, which extends to the shores of the Black Sea and the Sea of ​​Azov. Its uniformity is interrupted by some level and some hilly alignment in the northern part. Vast steppe spaces occupy the whole southern area, where small rounded bumps arise here and there, mounds raised in prehistoric times by the nomadic tribes, who occupied the region, above the graves of their dead. Ukraine, which was not invaded by the glacial mass, which covered the Russian region up to the line, which from Lviv to Žitomir, Kiev, Černigov, Bryansk and Tula, goes as far as Perm and which only in some points widened more towards the south with some lobes, it was instead almost entirely invaded by aeolian deposits. These, who covered the area closest to the glacial lands, they spread in a particular way over the whole Ukrainian region, on the upper and median basin of the Don, spreading a mantle of dusty soil, originating from moraine, fluvio-glacial and alluvial deposits. Formed during a much drier and hotter climate than the present, due to its progressive drying it was easily lifted by the winds and gradually deposited in the contiguous external area, where it reached a thickness of five or six meters. This löss has gradually been enriched, due to the accumulation of the decomposition products of the steppe grasses, of organic substances, which have given it a dark color, hence the name of Formed during a much drier and hotter climate than the present, due to its progressive drying it was easily lifted by the winds and gradually deposited in the contiguous external area, where it reached a thickness of five or six meters. This löss has gradually been enriched, due to the accumulation of the decomposition products of the steppe grasses, of organic substances, which have given it a dark color, hence the name of Formed during a much drier and hotter climate than the present, due to its progressive drying it was easily lifted by the winds and gradually deposited in the contiguous external area, where it reached a thickness of five or six meters. This löss has gradually been enriched, due to the accumulation of the decomposition products of the steppe grasses, of organic substances, which have given it a dark color, hence the name of it is ernozem, or black earth, which, thanks to its inexhaustible fertility and ease of tillage, has favored the agricultural development of the region in an exceptional way. Where this černozem is more abundant, there is a median band richer in organic substances, which reaches its maximum potential in depressed areas. To the north of it, towards the transition zone with glacial deposits, and to the south, towards the maritime area, the organic residues become more scarce and thus the loss regains its light color.

Southern Russia consists of three geomorphological regions namely the Podolic Shelf to the west on the left of the Dniester, the Don Shelf or more commonly the Central Shelf, and the Volga heights. Between the first and the second, the Dnieper plain opens up, while the Don plain opens up to the east of the second. Ukraine therefore extends over a large part of the Podolic Shelf, over the whole Dnieper plain, and finally over part of that of the Don.

The Podolic Shelf is made up of a block of granite rocks, lapped along its southern edge by the Dnestr. Towards the north it slowly degrades until it disappears, beyond the heights of Volhynia, in the vast Polish depression, occupied by swamps and marshes, while towards the east it approaches with some of its offshoots the line of the Dnieper. A powerful layer of kernozem has spread over the granite block.

The Podolic Shelf does not offer significant altitudes, since the two highest points touch 367 m. in Volhynia and 373 m. in Podolia. The rivers, however, thanks to their energetic erosive action, have affected the granite mass of the deep valleys. Along these the landscape appears much less desolate than on the plateau, where there is also a considerable scarcity of water.

The Dnieper plain is constituted by that part of the basin of this river, which develops downstream of the confluence of the Pripeć and the Desna, forming a kind of triangle. We can distinguish a northern strip, formed of sandy fluvio-glacial soils, of poor fertility and therefore covered with forests or sprinkled with swamps, and a southern zone, which represents the heart of Ukraine, and is covered by a blanket of black earth of inexhaustible fertility.

The Central Shelf has limited importance for Ukraine, since it develops for the most part outside the borders of Ukraine itself. Only the Donec heights, a thin line of flattened bumps, surmounted by conical ridges, called mogily, ie tombs, approaching the Sea of ​​Azov, break the uniformity of the Ukrainian plain. The geomorphological structure of south-western Russia is characterized by an anticline, which develops from the Kiev region to the Sea of ​​Azov, which is followed by a syncline, streaked by the course of the Donec. Prevailing are the deposits of the Tertiary, but towards the Sea of ​​Azov lands of the Paleozoic emerge. It is precisely in the Donec basin that the rich deposits of coal, iron and rock salt were formed, which ensure the country’s industrial future. For Ukraine 1999, please check estatelearning.com.

Ukraine is wet to the south, except for the short stretch occupied by the Isthmus of Perekop, which joins the mainland to the Crimean Peninsula, by the waters of the Black Sea. The Ukrainian coast begins at the mouth of the Dniester and describes an arc with the convexity facing north. The coast is flat, with numerous indentations at the bottom of which the rivers flow, including the Bug and the Dnieper. Characteristic are the limans, lagoons occupied by marine waters, but some of which no longer have communication with the sea. Their bottom is covered with a dense layer of mud, loaded with salsoiodic and sulphurous substances, therefore used for the treatment of rheumatism and skin diseases. The most important seaports are Odessa, which was already the busiest trading post in all of southern Russia, Nikolaev and Cherson. These last two ports have arisen far inside the mouths of the Bug and the Dnieper, in order to avoid the difficulties for landing caused by the marsh grasses along some stretches of the banks, and the consequences of poor sanitary conditions. During the winter, the waters of the sea and rivers freeze.

Ukraine is therefore, to the east of the Isthmus of Perekop, bathed by the Sea of ​​Azov almost to the mouth of the Don. The flat coast does not offer many favorable points for the landing of ships, and the only port is that of Mariupol ′ (Mariupil in Ukrainian). Overall, Ukraine, with the exception of the three mentioned ports of Odessa, Nikolaev and Cherson, has little contact with the sea, as is the case for the whole of the USSR.

Ukraine 1999