After 1991, Ukraine had taken over from the Soviet Union a centralized and strongly ideologized education system and was therefore forced to make decisive reforms in this area. Although some areas of education have now been decentralized and responsibilities have been delegated to the regions, education policy is largely determined by the Ministry of Education and Science, for example curricula or accreditations for school books. Education policy in Ukraine is understood as part of nation building and should play an important educational role for the new generations. Since independence, the Ukrainization policy has therefore been pushed for the entire education system.
Despite good progress since 1991, there is still a lot of catching up to do in numerous areas and there are still several problem areas. The education sector is chronically underfunded and there is often a lack of technical equipment, particularly in schools and vocational schools. Curricula are often based on the old Soviet models and still have to be adapted to the new requirements. Since the teaching profession is very poorly paid, there is strong corruption in Ukrainian schools and universities (title trading, ghostwriting, the purchase of diplomas and certificates, etc.).
The educational landscape in Ukraine includes schools, colleges, vocational schools and adult education.
According to businesscarriers, Ukraine is a country located in Eastern Europe. In Ukraine, there is general compulsory schooling from the age of five, six or seven (depending on the decision of the legal guardian). The Education comprises three levels: primary school (three or four years), middle school (roughly comparable to the German secondary level I) and high school (comparable to the German secondary level II). In the 1990’s, the school system diversified greatly and different types of schools emerged, such as grammar schools, lyceums and colleges that offer better quality education in the upper level (e.g. language grammar schools, high schools with a focus on mathematics, etc.) Private schools are also permitted. In 2001 a school reform was introduced which, among other things, provides for an extension of school education from ten to twelve years, which has now been introduced gradually.
University and professional training
In the higher education sector, there are numerous international collaborations from the 1990’s to the present dayarose because the government is keen to bring Ukrainian universities into line with the European system. The country has been a member of the Bologna Process since 2005. Bachelor and master degrees, modular curricula and the ECTS system were introduced. There are four levels of accreditation for universities in Ukraine. First level: vocational schools and colleges that offer some kind of training. Second stage: Institutes that offer bachelor’s degrees. Third and fourth levels: academies, institutes and universities. Higher education institutions with the fourth level of accreditation receive the most government grants and, despite high tuition fees, have the largest influx of students. After studying was free in the past, fees are currently charged for 75% of the study places,
In Soviet times, the area of vocational training was largely carried out by industry. Due to the decline of factories and businesses in the early 1990’s, the number of institutes and colleges to be trained also fell. Vocational training is divided into three levels: elementary training, which is free, a four-year training that does not require a university entrance qualification, and university training (e.g. for engineering professions).
The official language of the country is Ukrainian. According to a 2012 law, there are also regional official languages in Ukraine as soon as the minority share in a region exceeds 10%. Russian is the largest regional language in Ukraine, mostly spoken in the east and south of the country. In everyday Russian is used according to different statistics about 40% of the population and understood by most Ukrainians. This is related to the strong Russification of the country during Soviet times.
After Ukraine gained independence in 1991, Ukrainization of the country was pushed. Nevertheless, Russian remained as an everyday and regional language. The so-called “language question” was instrumentalized by politicians in Ukraine, but also in Russia, especially before presidential and parliamentary elections.
After the Maidan, the Ukrainian parliament passed the so-called ” Decommunization Acts “, which deal with language policy issues, among other things. The transmission of radio broadcasts in Russian has been restricted by these laws.
In addition to Russian and Ukrainian, there are other minority languages in Ukraine that are also taught in schools: Hungarian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Polish and others
In Ukraine there is also the language phenomenon Surzhyk – a dialectal mixture of Ukrainian and Russian.