Ukraine Early History

By | November 24, 2021

Ukrainian history, common prehistory (Eastern Europe) with other Eastern European countries. The name, which means “Grenzland” (from “vkraj”, German “on the edge”), was used in the Middle Ages to describe the East Slavic regions on the border with the steppe (dividing line between settled and nomadic peoples).

“Ukraine” appeared for the first time in a 12th century chronicle. This was used to designate the border areas of the Kiev Empire on today’s national territory. Since the 16th century, Ukrainians and Poles have called the area on the central Dnieper variously Ukraine; in the 17th century, when the name was also used abroad (1620 “Description d’Ukrainie” by Guillaume Le Vasseur Beauplan), he joined forces v. a. with the hetmanate of the Dnieper Cossacks and since the 19th century – supported by the Ukrainian national movement in the Russian Empire – it has been used more and more frequently, v. a. for the political associations and institutions and territorial units formed on Ukrainian territory in the 20th century.

For the Ukrainians, however, the name “Rus”, which was already used for the population of the Kiev Empire, remained predominant until the 17th century, and for those who were not under Russian rule even into the 20th century (also called “Rusyn”, in the Habsburg Empire) the Latin form “Rutheni” called “Ruthenen” in German). In the 17th century the name “Little Russia” came up for the Ukrainians in the Russian Empire, or “Little Russia” for the area they inhabit (originally coined in the 13th / 14th centuries by the Patriarchate Chancellery in Constantinople for the dioceses in the southwest 19th century felt by the Ukrainians as degrading).

  • Ukraine is a country starting with U. Check COUNTRYAAH to find other countries that also begin with letter U.

The assignment of Ukraine to East Slavic or Russian history is largely determined by national and political attitudes: While Great Russian and later Communist historiography interpret the history of Ukraine only as territorial history within the Russian Empire or 1922-91 within the framework of the Soviet Union, the national- Ukrainian historiography since M. Hruschewsky the Kiev Empire as part of the actual Ukrainian history and tries to see the national history as a continuous national history. A Ukrainian sense of independence first developed in the Cossack state (Hetmanat) of the 17th century; one can speak of a national consciousness of its own since the 19th century.

Antiquity and the Middle Ages

In the 7th century BC The Scythian and – on the north shore of the Black Sea – the Greek colonization continued in the 3rd century BC. The Sarmatian settlement. During the migration period, the area was inhabited by a large number of peoples (Goths, Huns, Avars, etc.) until the (probably) Slavic Antes settled here around the middle of the 1st millennium AD and East Slavic tribes from around the 6th century immigrated.

From the second half of the 9th century on the central Dnieper, the core area of ​​the East Slavic tribes, under the influence of the Varangians, the Kiev Empire emerged. The dynastic connection between the history of Ukraine and Russia (Rurikids) lasted until the conquest by the Mongols (1237-40). While the southwestern principalities of Halytsch and Volynia (united into one principality from 1199; Galicia) under Prince Danylo Romanowytsch (Russian Daniil Romanowitsch) were then able to develop independently, the steppe regions on the lower Dnieper and Donets were almost completely deserted.

Polish-Lithuanian rule and hetmanate

With the decline of the Golden Horde in the 14th century, Lithuania conquered Podolia, Kiev (1362) and parts of Volynia; Poland won under Casimir III. Galicia and part of West Volynia (“Rotrussland” or “Rotreußen”). In the middle of the 15th century, the Khanate of the Crimean Tatars was established in southern Ukraine. Century devastated the entire southwest Ukraine again and again by raids. By the Lublin Union (1569, Poland) most of Ukraine came under direct Polish rule. The award of large latifundia to Polish magnates of the Roman Catholic denomination and the abolition of peasant freedom of movement in the 3rd Lithuanian Statute (1588) led to social tensions that were exacerbated when the Brest Union appeared to initiate the catholization of the Orthodox Church in 1596. Leading in the resistance against Polish rule were the Cossacks who appeared on the steppe border on the lower Dnieper since the end of the 15th century. Their uprising under B. Chmelnyzky 1648, combined with bloody pogroms against the Jews (among others serving as administrators, tenants and tax collectors in the service of Polish magnates) aimed at regaining lost Cossack privileges and then began to oppose the bondage system supported by the Polish nobility and the influence of the Catholic Church in the to judge catholic-orthodox border area. The survey led to the formation of a separate Ukrainian state (hetmanate or hetman state), which, however, placed itself under the protection of the Russian tsar in the Pereyaslav Agreement (January 18, 1654). This turn away from Poland-Lithuania to the Moscow Tsar represented a historic turning point for Ukraine. This was interpreted by Russia as the beginning of their “eternal subject” and interpreted in the Soviet era as the “reunification of Ukraine with Russia”. The national Ukrainian historiography, however, interpreted the agreement as a temporary military agreement.

The Russian-Polish war that broke out in 1654 ended in the Andrussowo Armistice (1667), in which Ukraine was divided. The area east of the Dnieper (“left bank Ukraine”) came to Russia, the Zaporozhian Cossack area under a Polish-Russian condominium. As early as 1663, a central office responsible for the Ukraine (“Little Russian Chancellery”) was created in Moscow.

Ukraine Early History