Ukraine Development Policy
Since the late 1990’s, the Ukraine has experienced a major decline in population, on the one hand with a drastic decline in the birth rate and relatively low life expectancy (for men), and on the other hand with labor migration (according to various sources approx. 2.5-4 Million Ukrainians live and work in EU countries). The labor migrationhas on the one hand led to a large and sustained flow of capital from abroad and made investments and the establishment of small and medium-sized businesses in Ukraine possible. On the other hand, this made family relationships fragile and, as a result, increased social problems (alcoholism, drugs, HIV). Supporting measures are therefore necessary to stabilize the country in several sectors and to prevent or at least mitigate social erosion.
According to commit4fitness, Ukraine is a country located in Eastern Europe. After the Maidan in 2014, a comprehensive reform process began in Ukraine in cooperation with international actors, which is reflected in five key programs: In 2014, the Cabinet of Ministers adopted a program that regulates its activities until 2019. In 2015, the President of Ukraine adopted ” The Stable Development Strategy 2020 “.
In 2017, the Ukrainian government adopted the Action Plan on Implementation of the Open Government Partnership in 2018-2020, which aims to establish a transparent executive and implement reforms.
Ukraine signed a Council of Europe Action Plan for Ukraine 2018-2021 with the EU in February 2018. And as part of the United Nations Development Program, the Sustainable Strategy for Ukraine by 2030 was developed, in which the 17 UN goals for sustainable development were also formulated as national strategic goals.
In addition to state actors, civil society institutions are also participating in the reform process in Ukraine. The “ Reform Package Resuscitation ” coalition published an action plan with reform and development priorities for 2019-2023. The plan proposes reforms in 21 areas, including rule of law and security, administration, economy, sustainable and humanitarian development.
The United Nations Development Program(UNDP) supports Ukraine in the areas of democratic governance, poverty reduction, crisis prevention and energy and the environment. As part of the Transform program, between 1994 and 2005, the BMZ supported reform projects in the areas of sustainable economic policy (small and medium-sized enterprises), state administration, the energy sector and the fight against AIDS in Ukraine with 115 million euros. Germany is the third largest donor after the United States and Canada. Although Ukraine experienced an economic upswing up until 2008 (before the economic crisis), a backlog of reforms in key sectors (energy supply, modernization of infrastructure, vocational training, health care and the reorganization of public institutions) is still hindering the country’s long-term development.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has also been active in Ukraine since 1991. Since 2014, the OECD has been increasingly supporting Ukraine on its reform path in three programs: Anticorruption Network for Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Eurasia Competitiveness Program and Support for Improvement in Governance and Management (SIGMA). The European Union (EU) cooperates with Ukraine within the framework of the neighborhood policy and the association agreement, e.g. free trade area. Due to a badly battered economy, Ukraine is also participating in the International Monetary Fund’s aid program.
Development cooperation between Germany and Ukraine began shortly after the country gained independence. The German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) has been supporting Ukraine in its transformation process since 1993. GIZ runs programs and projects in the following areas: sustainable economic development, energy efficiency and the fight against HIV / AIDS. In addition, on behalf of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI), GIZ oversees a program to support the German minority in Ukraine (approx. 33,000 members).
On behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), GIZ took on the support of Ukraine in preparation for the 2012 European Football Championship. The cooperation focused on the areas of location marketing, development and improvement of the tourist offer and local public transport and airports.
KfW has been active in Ukraine on behalf of several German ministries since 1992 and focuses primarily on support in the areas of energy, finance and structural development.
Since 2008 several projects have been carried out in Ukraine as part of the International Climate Initiative of the Federal Environment Ministry. The main focus is on promoting energy efficiency and transport modernization.
The CIM has a presence in Ukraine and works in the areas of economic development, administrative reform and regional development. In addition, within the framework of the “Returning Experts” program, CIM offers support for Ukrainian experts who are returning to Ukraine after their studies, vocational training or work in Germany.
In 2014, the German federal government intensified its cooperation with Ukraine and increased development aid to EUR 20 million. In 2016, all support measures of the Federal Government were bundled in the “Ukraine Action Plan”, which is coordinated by the Federal Foreign Office.
Several party-affiliated foundations and development organizations have their representations in the Ukraine, such as the Heinrich Böll Foundation, Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Konrad Adenauer Foundation, and Hanns Seidel Foundation.
Cooperation in the field of culture and education
The level of education in Ukraine is relatively high and corresponds to that of an advanced reform country. Even if important reforms (especially the curricula) in this sector are still being carried out only half-heartedly, the level of education of Ukrainian pupils and students is relatively good. Cooperation in the education sector has been expanded and intensified since the 1990’s. A German-Ukrainian cultural agreement has existed since 1993 and since 1998 a German-Ukrainian agreement on university cooperation has promoted partnerships between universities and institutes.
German foreign cultural work in Ukraine has meanwhile led to a broad and well-functioning network of educational institutions, both in schools and universities as well as in the extracurricular area. A Goethe Institute has existed in Kyïv since 1993, which, in addition to language and cultural work, also focuses on expanding the network of reading rooms and language learning centers in the regions of the country. Since the 1990’s there have been several DAAD lectureships set up in Ukraine, including an IC editor in Kyiv. The DAAD’s scholarship programs and information work have also led to an increase in the number of Ukrainian students at German universities (currently approx. 4,000 Ukrainian students). The Center for Schools Abroad regularly sends German teachers to Ukrainian schools. A German school has existed in Kyiv since September 2008.