Turkmenistan Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Turkmenistan Basic Information


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

The head of state is the newly elected President Serdar Berdymuchammedov, who is also the Prime Minister (Cabinet of Ministers) and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The presidential election was held on March 12, 2022. Candidates from three political parties and non-party took part in the presidential election. S. Berdymuchammedov won 97.01% of the votes in the elections and was elected for another 7 years until 2029. The President issues decrees and regulations valid throughout the country, signs, or rejects laws passed by the parliament, appoints and dismisses representatives of the state administration, directs the implementation of foreign policy, etc. Check equzhou to learn more about Turkmenistan political system.


Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan – Türkmenistan ministrler kabineti

President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers – Serdar BERDYMUCHAMMEDOV

Vice-Chairmen of the Cabinet of Ministers:

  • Makhrydzhemal MAMEDOVA
  • Rashid MEREDOV
  • Muchammedkuly MUCHAMMED
  • Bajramgeldy OVEZOV
  • Esenmurad ORAZGELDYEV
  • Charymurad PURČEKOV
  • Sapardurdy TOJLIJEV


  • Allanur ALTYJEV – Minister of Agriculture and Environmental Protection
  • Guvanč ORUNOV – Minister of Construction and Architecture
  • Atageldy ŠAMURADOV – Minister of Culture
  • Begenč GUNDOGDYJEV – Minister of Defense
  • Muchammedgeldy SERDAROV – Minister of Finance and Economy
  • Kurbanguľ ATAJEVA – Minister of Education
  • Khadžimuchammed REDŽEPMURADOV – Minister of Energy
  • Rašid MEREDOV – Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Nurmuchammed AMANNEPESOV – Minister of Health and Healthcare Industry
  • Bajmurad ANNAMAMEDOV – Minister of Industry and Construction Production
  • Muchammed CHYDYROV – Minister of the Interior
  • Meredtagan TAGANOV – Minister of Justice
  • Muchammedsejid SILAPOV – Minister of Labor and Social Protection
  • Kurbanmurad ANNAJEV – Minister of National Security
  • Rasul REDŽEPOV – Minister of Textile Industry
  • Begenč GOČMOLLAJEV – Minister of Trade and External Economic Relations
  • Gulmurad AGAMURADOV – Minister of Sports and Youth

The privatization plan for part (33) state-owned enterprises is currently in the process of being implemented according to the Strategy for Management and Reform of State-owned Enterprises TM for the years 2021-2025 and the following programs:

  • Copyright system development program for 2021-2025
  • Energy Diplomacy Development Program for 2021-2025
  • National program of activities for gender equality for the years 2021-2025
  • National strategy for the development of renewable energy sources for the years 2021-2030.

The goal of these initiatives is to improve the standard of living of the nation, to introduce modern IT technologies in all areas, but the practice so far shows that everything remains only on paper and any real reforms take place very slowly.

Foreign policy of the country

Turkmenistan is one of the most closed countries of SA, which greatly complicates the analysis of the country’s foreign and domestic policies. As Turkmenistan is not a member of major regional associations – EAEU, CSTO, SCO, a significant part of foreign policy is based on bilateral trade and economic relations. The most important trade partners in terms of goods are Turkey, the UAE, China and Russia. Check recipesinthebox for Turkmenistan defense and foreign policy.

In official rhetoric, the Turkmen government constantly emphasizes the country’s neutral status. Turkmenistan has established diplomatic relations with more than 130 countries of the world and is a member of 40 international organizations. These include the UN, the CIS, the OECD; financial institutions – International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, etc. The country is a party to more than 120 international treaties.

The Turkmen economy is highly dependent on the volumes of oil and gas exports, and therefore this area greatly influences the country’s foreign policy. After a sharp reduction in the volumes of Turkmen gas imports to Russia, the Turkmen government began to intensively expand cooperation with China, Azerbaijan and Turkey. In January 2021, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the aim of joint exploration, mining and development of the Dostluk deposit, which the Turkish side expressed interest in with regard to the entry of Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan into the Turkic Council.

Bilateral relations between Turkmenistan and the European Union are governed by the Interim Trade Agreement (2010), pending the ratification of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement by the European Parliament. As part of this agreement, the EU and Turkmenistan organize an annual meeting of the Bilateral Joint Committee to discuss key aspects of the bilateral relationship, in particular: (i) trade and economy; ii) implementation of the EU-Central Asia strategy; iii) political and economic developments; iv) and key aspects of EU development cooperation programs. So far, 19 meetings of the Joint Committee have been held, the last of which took place on 25 June 2020. Relations between the European Parliament and the Majlis (Parliament) of Turkmenistan take place through the mechanism of inter-parliamentary meetings. The last fifth EU-Turkmenistan interparliamentary meeting took place in Brussels on 2 December 2019.


As of February 1, 2022, the population was estimated at approximately 6.28 million. The annual population increase in 2021 reached 1.27%, the population density was 1persons/m 2. The share of the urban population in 2021 reached 53.0%. More than 100 nationalities live in Turkmenistan, of which 84.0% are Turkmen, 9.0% Uzbeks, 2.3% Russians, 1.0% Kazakhs, 0.8% each Armenians, Azerbaijanis and Tatars, 0.2% Ukrainians. Turkmen are divided into 7 large and 24 small tribes:

  • Tekke – Central Turkmenistan
  • Ersary – south-eastern Turkmenistan
  • Yomud – Western Turkmenistan
  • Göklen – southwestern Turkmenistan
  • Salor – Eastern Turkmenistan
  • Saryk – Southern Turkmenistan
  • Choudor – Northern Turkmenistan

Religious composition:

  • Islam – predominantly Sunni of the Hanafi rite – 93%
  • Orthodox 6.5%
  • others 0.5%

In accordance with the constitution, the state language is Turkmen, which belongs to the Turko-Tatar group of Indo-European languages. The next most used language is Russian (the language of ethnic contact – used by 38% of the population). The goal of the state program “Language” is to achieve mastery of Turkmen, Russian and English.

Turkmenistan is divided into 5 administrative-economic regions (velayates):

  • Akhalský (administrative center of Eněv)
  • Balkan (Turkmenbashi)
  • Dašoguzsky (Dašoguz)
  • Lebap (Turkmenabad)
  • Mary (Mary).

The velayats are further divided into etraps (districts or districts). There are 20 cities and 46 smaller settlements in the country.