Turkey borders Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Syria and the Mediterranean Sea, as well as Greece and Bulgaria. It is still a popular travel destination, although the risk of attacks and political despotism has increased in recent years. Rich in history and culture, Turkey offers an extraordinary variety of exciting destinations.
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Source: Destination Explorer
Fast facts to know
- It was Turkey that brought the tulips to Europe.
- Istanbul is the only city with a population of over a million that lies on two continents.
- Turkey has 13 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
- Troy is located in what is now Turkey.
- Turkey is considered the father of coffee.
- Only 3% of Turkey is on the European continent
- 99 percent of the residents are Muslims.
- The Turkish identity card is pink for women and blue for men.
- St. Nicholas was bishop in Demre in Turkey.
- There have been repeated terrorist attacks in Turkey, especially since mid-2015.
- Information on the security situation in Turkey.
- Germans can enter with an identity card and passport, the German driving license is valid.
- Turkey is particularly popular with package holidaymakers for beach holidays.
- Tetanus, measles or hepatitis A and B are among the recommended vaccinations.
Exciting cities in Turkey
History of Turkey
- 6th to 8th century Köktürk kingdom.
- 11th century Turkish colonization of Anatolia begins with the Seljuks.
- 1299 Beginning of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1920 Peace Treaty of Sèvres means the end of the Ottoman Empire. Turkey is to be dismembered, but is not implemented.
- 1920-22 War with Greece followed by ethnic cleansing in both countries.
- In 1923, with the Treaty of Lausanne, the borders of today’s Turkey were defined under international law.
- 1923 Proclamation of the republic.
- Largely neutral in World War II.
- One of the 51 founding members of the United Nations.
- 1952 Joined NATO.
- 1980 military coup.
- 1982 The constitution of the Republic of Turkey, presented by the military and still valid today, is adopted by a referendum.
- The Kurdish conflict has dominated the domestic political debate in Turkey since the mid-1980s.
- 2016 coup attempt and subsequent harsh countermeasures by the government under Erdogan. Since then, Turkey has had a presidential system.
Climate & travel weather in Turkey
- Marmara region: maritime climate (hot summers, snowy winters).
- Black Sea region: oceanic climate (humid-warm summer, humid-temperate winter).
- Aegean Region: Mediterranean climate (hot, dry summers, mild winters).
- Mediterranean region: subtropical climate (very hot summers, very mild winters).
- Anatolia: continental climate (hot, dry summers, very cold, very snowy winters).
- Recommended travel time:
- Suitable for travel all year round.
- Skiing in the mountains: Dec to April.
- Southern Regions: Spring & Autumn.
Ideas for trips in Turkey
- Rock world Cappadocia
- Ruins of Ephesus and the Library of Celsus
- Limestone Terraces of Pamukkale
- Rock Tombs of Myra
- Statues of gods by Nemrut Dagi
- Ancient ruins of Xanthos
- Blue Mosque
- Bosphorus bridge
- Topkapi Palace
- Dolmabahce Palace
- Hagia Sophia ( Wonder of the World candidate 2007)
- Amphitheater of Aspendos
- Sumela Monastery
- Pertek island fortress in the Keban reservoir
Eating & Drinking in Turkey
- Influenced by Indian, Persian and Arabic cuisine.
- Similarities with oriental and Greek cuisine.
- Lots of fresh vegetables, lamb and mutton used.
- Aromatically seasoned.
- Elaborate and time-consuming preparation of the dishes.
- Breakfast usually simply with feta cheese, olives, jam, white bread.
- Lunch is eaten lightly.
- You take a lot of time for the evening meal.
- Highlight: cold starters (Mezeler).
- Favorite Meat: Lamb, Mutton, Poultry, Beef.
- Soups come in many varieties, mostly eaten at lunchtime.
- Salads are usually served with a marinade of olive oil and lemon juice.
- Flatbread or white bread is often served as a side dish, otherwise rice or bulgur are common.
- Desserts mostly very sweet.
- Popular drinks: black tea or coffee.
- Unofficial national drink: aniseed liquor raki.
- Non-alcoholic soft drink based on yoghurt: Ayran.
- Water is usually drunk non-carbonated.
- Local wines: Doluca, Kavaklidere.
- Typical dishes:
- Turlu (vegetable stew).
- Shepherd’s salad (cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, feta cheese, onions).
- Ahtapot salatasi (squid rings in oil with green olives).
- Arnavut cigeri (fried, cold pieces of liver with onions).
- Iskender kebap (kebab slices on flatbread with yoghurt, doused with butter).
- Karni yarik (aubergines stuffed with onions and minced meat).
- Kebaps (grilled, seasoned meat, thinly sliced).
- Kofte (spicy lamb or beef meatballs).
- Biber dolmasi (peppers stuffed with minced meat and rice).
- Iç pilav (rice dish with raisins, liver and peas).
- Iskembe corbasi (tripe soup).
- Manti (ravioli with garlic yoghurt and fresh mint leaves).
- Sis kebabi (tender pieces of lamb grilled with tomatoes, onions and peppers).
- Baklava (sweet dish made from puff pastry with pistachios, nuts).
- Halva (sweet made from sesame oil and sugar).
- Mountains in Adana
- Turkish riviera
- Tea plantations in Rize
- Erciyes Dagi volcano in Kayseri in winter
- Blue Lagoon in Oludeniz
- Yerkopru Waterfall in Mut, Mardin
- Mount Ararat on the border with Armenia
- Olympos Beach, Cirali