Turkey Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Turkey Basic Information

Subchapters:

  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country

The presidential and parliamentary elections held in Turkey on 24/06/2018 confirmed the victory of re-elected President Recep Tayyip Erdogan (52.55%) and the alliance of AKP and MHP parties (53.62%). Following the elections, Turkey switched to a presidential system, which abolished the posts of Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Ministers, created new presidential committees and restructured (abolished and merged) some departments. On 07/09/2018 President Erdogan was sworn in and on 07/10/2018 a new government was appointed, which currently (April 2022) has the following composition:

Fuat Oktay – Vice President

Süleyman Soylu – Minister of the Interior

Bekir Bozdag – Minister of Justice (from 31 January 2022)

Derya Yanik – Minister for Family Affairs and Social Services (from 20/04/2021)

Vedat Bilgin – Minister of Labor and Social Security (from 20/04/2021)

Hulusi Akar – Minister of Defense

Murat Kurum – Minister of the Environment and Urban Planning

Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu – Foreign Minister

Fatih Dönmez – Minister of Energy and Natural Resources

Mehmet M.Kasapoğlu – Minister of Youth and Sports

Mehmet Muş – Minister of Trade (from 20/04/2021)

Mehmet Nuri Ersoy – Minister of Culture and Tourism

Nureddin Nebati – Minister of Finance (from 2 December 2021)

Mahmut Özer – Minister of Education (from 6 August 2021)

Vahit Kirisci – Minister of Agriculture and Forestry (from 2 March 2022)

Fahrettin Koca – Minister of Health

Adil Karaismailoğlu – Minister of Transport and Infrastructure (from 28/03/2020)

Mustafa Varank – Minister of Industry and Technology

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

The presidential and parliamentary elections held in Turkey on 24/06/2018 confirmed the victory of re-elected President Recep Tayyip Erdogan (52.55%) and the alliance of AKP and MHP parties (53.62%). Following the elections, Turkey switched to a presidential system, which abolished the posts of Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Ministers, created new presidential committees and restructured (abolished and merged) some departments. Check equzhou to learn more about Turkey political system. On 07/09/2018 President Erdogan was sworn in and on 07/10/2018 a new government was appointed, which currently (April 2022) has the following composition:

Fuat Oktay – Vice President

Süleyman Soylu – Minister of the Interior

Bekir Bozdag – Minister of Justice (from 31 January 2022)

Derya Yanik – Minister for Family Affairs and Social Services (from 20/04/2021)

Vedat Bilgin – Minister of Labor and Social Security (from 20/04/2021)

Hulusi Akar – Minister of Defense

Murat Kurum – Minister of the Environment and Urban Planning

Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu – Foreign Minister

Fatih Dönmez – Minister of Energy and Natural Resources

Mehmet M.Kasapoğlu – Minister of Youth and Sports

Mehmet Muş – Minister of Trade (from 20/04/2021)

Mehmet Nuri Ersoy – Minister of Culture and Tourism

Nureddin Nebati – Minister of Finance (from 2 December 2021)

Mahmut Özer – Minister of Education (from 6 August 2021)

Vahit Kirisci – Minister of Agriculture and Forestry (from 2 March 2022)

Fahrettin Koca – Minister of Health

Adil Karaismailoğlu – Minister of Transport and Infrastructure (from 28/03/2020)

Mustafa Varank – Minister of Industry and Technology

Foreign policy of the country

TR’s primary political and economic partner is the European Union. TR applied for full membership in the EC on April 14, 1987, at the Helsinki summit in December 1999, TR became a candidate state, accession talks began on October 3, 2005. At present, 16 accession chapters are open, with further continuation in most of blocked by them as a result of TR’s bilateral disputes with Greece and Cyprus. In the relations between TR and the EU, the areas of dispute are migration policy (on March 18, 2016, the Joint Statement of TR and the EU was signed), the functioning of the TR-EU Customs Union (it has existed since 1 January 1996), visa liberalization for TR citizens and the continuation of financial assistance for 4 million refugees residing in TR territory after 2021., while the overall obstacle to the continuation of TR integration into the EU is the state of human rights in the country.

Among the obstacles to the continuation of the TR’s accession negotiations and integration into the EU at all are the unilateral activities of the TR in relation to Cyprus (whose integrity and sovereignty the TR does not recognize), as well as the negative development in the TR in the area of ​​human rights and fundamental freedoms, especially the suppression of media freedom, limiting the activity of political parties and violating the rule of law. The current sentence against the philanthropist and activist Osman Kavala, who was sentenced to life imprisonment on 4/25/2022 after 4 years in prison, for an alleged conspiracy to violently overthrow the TR government, is significant. TR, on the other hand, criticizes the EU’s policy towards migrants and “Islamophobia” in member states, and attempts to influence political events in European states with a Turkish ethnic community. Check recipesinthebox for Turkey defense and foreign policy.

TR’s relations with the USA have improved, which is important in connection with Russian aggression against Ukraine, when TR’s importance has significantly increased within the framework of international efforts to support Ukraine and punish RU as an aggressor and its diplomatic-economic containment. TR’s efforts to mediate negotiations between the UA and RU have the support of both the US and the EU, and this role of TR also makes it possible not to apply international sanctions against RU. A positive bilateral agenda in 2021 was also TR’s engagement to stabilize the situation in Afghanistan after the withdrawal of coalition forces.

TR’s role as “guardian of the Straits” (in the sense of the Montreux Convention of 1936, which gave Turkey full sovereignty over the Bosphorus and Dardanelles and control over the movement of warships in them) is also gaining importance vis-à-vis the USA and NATO. After the outbreak of fighting in Ukraine, TR called on all Black Sea and other states not to send warships through the Straits, stating that according to Article 13 of the Convention, it is still necessary to notify the request for the passage of a warship 8/15 days in advance.

However, the use of the Russian S-400 anti-aircraft system by Turkey, which does not want to give it up even in a situation of RU aggression against the UA, remains a problem in bilateral defense cooperation (and has also rejected informal US proposals to hand over the system to Ukraine in exchange for the delivery of the US Patriot system). TR also remains excluded from the joint development project of the 5th generation F-35 fighter aircraft, as well as from all US export licenses and bank loans and US EximBank credit assistance for TR Defense Industry Administration. SSB. The US also criticizes developments in the TR in the area of ​​human rights, and the various assessments of the “events” of 2015, which the US government publicly refers to as the Armenian genocide, continue to be disputed.

The relations between Turkey and Russia remain complex, but diplomatically correct even after the Russian military invasion of Ukraine in February 2022. Using the existing close economic and political ties to both UA and RU, TR was already offered before 2/24 by the mouth of President Erdogan and zaminira Cavusoglu as a mediator, or the venue for possible direct talks between the representatives of both parties. These activities further intensified immediately after the RU began the invasion, at the technical level TR was mediatingly involved in the negotiation of humanitarian corridors for the evacuation of the civilian population from combat zones. The limit of TR’s mediation efforts is primarily RU’s reluctance to stop the aggression and negotiate a withdrawal of forces.

Population

Area: 783,562 km2, of which 769,632 km2 is land and 13,930 km2 is water.

Border length: 2,648 km (Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km, coast: 7,200 km).

Population: 84,680,273 (average population density: 111/km2). In 2021, the population increased by 1,065,011 compared to 2020.

Literacy: 97% of the total population (men 99.1%, women 94.9%).

Average annual population increase: 12.7‰.

Demographic composition: (age) 0-14: 22.4%, 15-64: 67.9%, +65: 9.7%.

Birth rate: 1.91 children/per 1 woman. In 2021, 1,112,829 children were born, of which 51.4% were boys and 48.6% were girls.

Mortality: 5.5/1000, infant mortality 8.3/1000. The number of deaths was 480,671 in 2020, an increase of 0.8% compared to 2019.

Migration balance for 2021: +458,626.

Average age of the population: 3(average age of men: 32.4, average age of women: 33.8).

National composition: official statistics do not state, estimate: Turks 70-75%, Kurds 18%, remaining 7-12% (Armenians, Arabs, Greeks, Albanians, Georgians, Laz, Circassians, Jews and others).

Religious composition: 99.8% of the population are Muslims (majority Sunnis, minority Alevis), 0.2% others (Jews and Christians of the Orthodox, Gregorian, Jewish, Catholic and Protestant faiths). Both the Greek Orthodox and Armenian Patriarchates are based in Istanbul.

Official language and other most commonly used languages: Turkish

Kurdish is used in everyday informal communication, especially in the south-east of Turkey. Knowledge of other world languages, especially German and English, is low among the population, knowledge of English, or French is limited to the more educated classes and important tourist centers, German to former “guest workers”.

Turkey is divided into 81 provinces (il), further divided into districts (ilçe).