Turkey 1982

By | September 13, 2023

Turkey in 1982: A Historical Snapshot

Turkey, straddling the border of Europe and Asia, has a rich history and has played a pivotal role in shaping the geopolitics of the region. In 1982, Turkey was navigating a complex political landscape while undergoing significant economic and social changes. This comprehensive overview provides insight into Turkey during that time, covering its historical background, politics, society, economy, and international relations.

Historical Background:

To understand Turkey in 1982, it’s essential to consider its historical context:

  1. Ottoman Empire: Turkey, formerly known as the Ottoman Empire, was one of the world’s most powerful empires from the 14th to the early 20th century. It spanned three continents and included diverse ethnic and religious groups.
  2. World War I and Turkish War of Independence: After World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned, and Turkey went through a period of turmoil. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk led the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1923) and established the Republic of Turkey in 1923.
  3. Atatürk’s Reforms: Atatürk introduced a series of sweeping reforms aimed at modernizing Turkey, including the adoption of a Latin alphabet, secularism, and women’s rights.
  4. Political Landscape: Turkey’s politics were dominated by the Republican People’s Party (CHP), founded by Atatürk. However, multi-party democracy was introduced in 1946.

Politics in 1982:

In 1982, Turkey was characterized by its unique political system and the influence of the military:

  1. 1980 Military Coup: In September 1980, a military coup led by General Kenan Evren seized power, dissolved the existing government, and suspended the constitution.
  2. 1982 Constitution: According to ehealthfacts, the military junta introduced a new constitution in 1982, which remains in place today. It established a semi-presidential system, with both a president and a prime minister.
  3. Political Parties: Political parties were reestablished after the coup, with the Nationalist Democracy Party (MDP) and the Motherland Party (ANAP) emerging as significant players.
  4. Authoritarian Rule: The military regime governed with a strong hand, suppressing political opposition and cracking down on dissent. Many individuals were arrested, and political activities were restricted.
  5. Transition to Democracy: In 1983, Turkey held general elections, marking a transition to civilian rule. The Motherland Party (ANAP), led by Turgut Özal, won the elections.

Society and Culture:

Turkish society in 1982 was characterized by its cultural diversity and its efforts to modernize:

  1. Cultural Diversity: Turkey is a diverse country with a mix of ethnicities, including Turks, Kurds, Arabs, and others. This diversity was reflected in its cuisine, traditions, and languages.
  2. Religion: The majority of Turks were Muslims, and Islam played a significant role in daily life. However, Turkey maintained a secular state, thanks to Atatürk’s reforms.
  3. Language: Turkish was the official language, with efforts to promote language standardization and literacy.
  4. Education: Education was highly valued, with a focus on expanding access to schooling and promoting literacy. Universities and technical institutes were established to meet the country’s educational needs.
  5. Women’s Rights: Turkey was making progress in women’s rights, with reforms aimed at increasing gender equality and women’s participation in the workforce.


The Turkish economy in 1982 was characterized by its efforts to modernize and liberalize:

  1. Agriculture: Agriculture played a significant role in the economy, with products like cotton, tobacco, and cereals being major exports.
  2. Industrialization: Turkey had embarked on a path of industrialization, with a focus on sectors like textiles, automotive, and electronics.
  3. Tourism: Turkey was emerging as a popular tourist destination, known for its historical sites, beautiful landscapes, and rich cultural heritage.
  4. Economic Reforms: The government implemented economic reforms to liberalize trade and investment, aiming to attract foreign capital and modernize industries.

International Relations:

Turkey’s international relations in 1982 were marked by its geopolitical significance and alliances:

  1. NATO Membership: Turkey was a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) since 1952, making it a key player in the Cold War.
  2. Cyprus Conflict: Turkey’s invasion of Cyprus in 1974 continued to impact its relations with Greece and the wider international community.
  3. Regional Influence: Turkey was actively engaged in regional diplomacy, with a focus on its relationships with neighboring countries in the Middle East and the Balkans.
  4. Geopolitical Role: Turkey’s strategic location at the crossroads of Europe and Asia made it a critical player in regional politics, particularly during the Iran-Iraq War.


In 1982, Turkey was a nation undergoing political transitions, marked by its complex history and efforts to modernize. The military coup of 1980 had brought about significant changes to the political landscape, and the country was navigating its way back to civilian rule. While political freedoms were limited during this period, Turkey’s cultural diversity and rich heritage continued to shape its society.

Economically, Turkey was on a path of industrialization and economic liberalization, with tourism emerging as an important sector. Geopolitically, its strategic location gave it a significant role in regional politics.

Turkey’s history continued to evolve in the following decades, with further political changes, economic growth, and challenges on the international stage.

Primary education in Turkey

Primary Education in Turkey: A Comprehensive Overview


According to allcitycodes, primary education serves as the foundation for an individual’s lifelong learning journey, and it plays a crucial role in shaping a nation’s future. In Turkey, primary education is a fundamental part of the education system, designed to provide children with essential knowledge, skills, and values necessary for personal development and active citizenship. This comprehensive overview will delve into the primary education system in Turkey, including its structure, curriculum, challenges, and recent developments.

Structure of Primary Education

Primary education in Turkey is provided for children aged between 6 and 14 years, and it typically spans eight years. The structure is as follows:

  1. Preschool Education (Okul Öncesi Eğitim): While not formally considered part of primary education, preschool education in Turkey is crucial in preparing children for their primary schooling. It is not compulsory but is encouraged. Preschool education is typically offered in kindergartens and daycares.
  2. Primary School (İlkokul): Primary school in Turkey consists of four years, starting from grade 1 and ending with grade 4. It serves as the foundational stage of compulsory education.
  3. Lower Secondary School (Ortaokul): Following primary school, students move on to lower secondary school, which covers grades 5 to 8. Lower secondary education is designed to provide students with a more comprehensive and varied curriculum.

Compulsory Education

Turkey has a system of compulsory education, which means that all children between the ages of 6 and 14 are required to attend school. The goal is to ensure that every child has access to a basic level of education. However, challenges related to attendance and dropout rates persist in some regions of the country, especially in rural areas.

Curriculum and Subjects

The primary education curriculum in Turkey is developed and regulated by the Ministry of National Education (Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı). The curriculum is periodically updated to meet evolving educational needs and standards. It covers a wide range of subjects, including:

  1. Turkish Language and Literature: Emphasizing language skills, reading, writing, and Turkish literature.
  2. Mathematics: Teaching mathematical concepts and problem-solving skills.
  3. Science: Introducing students to basic scientific principles and knowledge.
  4. Social Studies: Providing an understanding of geography, history, and citizenship education.
  5. Religious Culture and Moral Values: Offering courses on religion and ethics, with an option for non-Muslim students to study their own religion or ethics.
  6. Foreign Language: Typically English, although other languages are also offered in some schools.
  7. Physical Education: Promoting physical fitness and well-being.
  8. Art and Music: Encouraging creativity and cultural appreciation.
  9. Technology and Informational Literacy: Introducing students to basic computer skills and information literacy.

Assessment and Grading

Student performance is assessed through various methods, including exams, quizzes, projects, and classroom participation. At the end of each academic year, students receive grades based on their performance in each subject. The grading scale in Turkey typically ranges from 0 to 100, with passing grades often set at 50 or higher.

Transition to Lower Secondary School

After completing primary school, students take a transition exam called the “Secondary Education Institutions Transition Examination” (Ortaöğretime Geçiş Sınavı or OGS). The results of this exam, along with their primary school grades, determine which type of secondary school they can attend. The options include regular lower secondary schools, Anatolian lower secondary schools (with a stronger focus on academic subjects), vocational lower secondary schools, and religious vocational lower secondary schools.

Challenges and Issues

While Turkey’s primary education system has made significant progress over the years, it still faces several challenges and issues:

  1. Educational Disparities: There are significant disparities in educational access and quality between urban and rural areas, as well as among different regions of the country. Rural areas often struggle with inadequate infrastructure, qualified teachers, and resources.
  2. Dropout Rates: Despite compulsory education, dropout rates, especially in lower secondary school, remain a concern. Economic factors, early marriages, and the need for child labor contribute to this problem.
  3. Quality of Education: Ensuring the quality of education is an ongoing challenge. This includes improving teacher training, curriculum development, and assessment methods.
  4. Teacher Shortages: Some regions of Turkey face shortages of qualified teachers, leading to overcrowded classrooms and lower-quality education.
  5. Inclusivity: Ensuring that students with disabilities have equal access to education and necessary support services is an ongoing challenge.

Recent Developments

The Turkish government has undertaken several initiatives to address these challenges and improve primary education:

  1. Educational Reforms: The government has implemented a series of educational reforms aimed at enhancing the quality of education and reducing disparities. These reforms include changes to curriculum, assessment methods, and teacher training.
  2. Investment in Infrastructure: There has been increased investment in school infrastructure, especially in rural areas, to provide a conducive learning environment.
  3. Technology Integration: Efforts have been made to integrate technology into the classroom to enhance teaching and learning.
  4. Inclusive Education: There is a growing emphasis on inclusive education, with measures taken to support students with disabilities.


Primary education in Turkey plays a vital role in shaping the future of the country and its citizens. While there have been significant improvements in recent years, challenges related to educational disparities, dropout rates, and quality persist. The Turkish government’s ongoing efforts to address these issues and provide equitable access to quality education are crucial steps toward a brighter future for its young generation. By continuing to invest in education and prioritize inclusivity and quality, Turkey can build a strong foundation for the development of its society and economy.