Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
Population: 11,800,000 (females 50.4%, males 49.6%)
Demographic composition: Arabs (98%), Berbers (1%), European and Jewish minorities (1%)
Religion: Sunni Muslim (99%), Judaism (1%)
Average annual growth rate: 20.5%
Diaspora: 1,282,371 live mainly in France and Germany, women 26%, children and youth under 16 make up 25%. The diaspora maintains economic ties with the homeland, and financial resources transferred from abroad to Tunisia represent 8.4% of GDP.
Average number of children in the family: 2.4
Literacy rate: 81.8% (89.6% for men and 74.2% for women)
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
Official name of the country: Republic of Tunisia (République tunisienne)
Developments in Tunisia took an unexpected turn on July 25, 2021, when President Kais Said took power with broad public support, froze, and then dissolved parliament. The semi-presidential regime has “temporarily” become a presidential regime, where decisions are made through decrees, and the political parties elected to parliament in 2019 have lost the ability to enter into political discussion overnight. The situation led to the culmination of a protracted economic and pandemic crisis, and a long-term political stalemate between the president and parliament/ruling Ennahda movement and the prime minister. Check cancermatters to learn more about Tunisia political system.
Just twelve days after her appointment on October 11, 2021, the new Prime Minister of the Republic of Tunisia, Nazla Buden Romdhane, presented the names of the members of the new government, consisting of sixteen new ministers, five existing ministers and three old ones who were dismissed during the government of the previous Prime Minister Meshishi. A referendum is planned for July 25, 2022, in which Tunisians will be able to express their views on the nature of the political system of the so-called “Third Republic”. The version of the new constitution, drawn up on the basis of a public online consultation, is yet to be published. This widely disputed consultation took place from January to March 2022, and according to official sources, over 530,000 people took part in it. citizens. The questions related to the political system, quality of life, economy, sustainable development, social affairs, education or culture.
After the initial enthusiasm of the public in the country, skepticism and tension prevails resulting from the marginalization of elected political parties, the president’s interventions in the judiciary and independent institutions, as well as due to the persecution of some members of the still ruling political parties (eg Ennahda, Qalb Tounes and others) and journalists. In addition, the country faces painful economic reforms, which will not be possible to implement without the broad support of the Tunisian trade union UGTT and other interest groups. However, the consensus on these reforms depends on the loan from the International Monetary Fund, which is vital for the Tunisian economy.
Foreign policy of the country
Tunisia has long been pursuing a foreign policy based on neutrality and anchoring the country in the Euro-Mediterranean area, although since the centralization of executive power in the president from July 25, 2021, ties are strengthening primarily with Egypt and other Arab states. Check prozipcodes for Tunisia defense and foreign policy.
Despite deteriorating relations with the EU due to the country’s impending departure from a democratic system, Tunisia remains a privileged partner of the European Union, which is also Tunisia’s main economic partner – up to 80% of Tunisian trade goes here. In addition to financing thematic programs, the EU also provides Tunisia with generous macroeconomic aid, which should reach EUR 300 million for 2022. An Association Agreement was concluded between the EU and Tunisia in 1995, but the move to a DCFTA (known as ALECA) was a highly politicized issue and negotiations were suspended.
Regional stability, especially in the neighboring states of Libya and Algeria, is a strategic interest of Tunisian foreign policy, which remains rather passive. However, in July 2020, Tunisia celebrated the 60th anniversary of its participation in UN-led peacekeeping operations, currently participating in five peacekeeping operations. Tunisia has taken a relatively neutral position towards the Libyan conflict, as was the case with the 2019 outbreak of protests in Algeria. However, following the restart of the Libyan peace process, Tunisia hosted the first meeting of the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum in November 2020 on Tunisian soil. Now, Tunisia continues to openly support a peaceful solution in the country, and seeks above all to revive the all-important economic cooperation with Libya.
Economic cooperation is a key factor in Tunisia’s relations with the Arab Gulf states, whose financial aid contributes to the country’s development. Tunisia has long maintained a vocal pro-Palestinian policy, which it fundamentally separates from its approach to its own Jewish population. In connection with the crises in the Gaza Strip and the Palestinian territories, calls for the adoption of a law criminalizing relations with the “Zionist entity” are always renewed.
The African dimension of Tunisia’s foreign policy has gained importance in recent years with the opening of new diplomatic missions in Burkina Faso and Kenya, or the expansion of air connections. The Tunisian network of private universities and health facilities has long attracted mobile clients from francophone countries in Africa, the aim is to continue developing economic relations within the framework of Tunisia’s involvement in the African Continental Free Trade Area (ZLECAF), since January 2020 Tunisia is also a member of the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
In connection with Russian aggression in Ukraine, Tunisia has taken the position of a cautious critic. Although Tunisia voted in favor of a resolution condemning Russia’s aggression, Tunisian political discourse mainly emphasizes neutrality.
- Population: 11,800,000
- Gender ratio: women 50.17%, men 49.83% (2014 data)
- Demographic composition: Arabs (98%), Berbers (1%), European and Jewish minorities (1%)
- Language: Arabic, French
- Religion: Sunni Muslim (99%), Judaism (1%)
- Average annual growth rate: 20.5%
- Diaspora: 1,282,371 live mainly in France and Germany, women 26%, children and youth under 16 make up 25%. The diaspora maintains economic ties with the homeland, and financial resources transferred from abroad to Tunisia represent 8.4% of GDP.
- Average number of children in the family: 2.4
- Literacy rate: 81.8% (89.6% for men and 74.2% for women)