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|1||University of Arkansas, Department of Physics
Address: 825 W. Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701
Phone: (479) 575-2506
Email: [email protected]
The state of Arkansas is characterized by a humid subtropical climate, which is strongly influenced by the proximity of the Gulf of Mexico. Winters here are mild, snowfalls are, as a rule, only in the north of the state only a few times per season. Summers in Arkansas are hot and humid, with frequent thunderstorms.
The first European explorer of Arkansas was the Spanish pioneer Hernando de Soto, the expedition led by him passed here in 1541. In 1673, an expedition led by Frenchmen Jacques Marquette and Louis Jollier sailed to Arkansas from the north along the Mississippi River. In their footsteps, in 1681–82, René de La Salle descended to the Gulf of Mexico. In 1686, the first settlement of Europeans in Arkansas was founded – the French trading post Arkansas Post.
It was the French who named the river flowing through the region the word “Arkansas” (and later the state received this name). The name is borrowed from the Indians, as one of the peoples living here was called. Possible meanings of the word are “people living downstream” or “people of the south wind”. From the same roots as the name Arkansas are the names of the river and the state of Kansas.
During the 18th century, the lands of Arkansas were formally part of the French (and, for some time, Spanish) colony of Louisiana. In fact, neither France nor Spain showed much interest in the development of these lands; only hunters and merchants occasionally appeared here. Arkansas Post remained the only permanent European presence in the region.
After the independence of the United States of America and the expansion of the territory of the new country to the west at the end of the 18th century, beyond the Appalachian mountains in Kentucky and Tennessee, the US government showed increasing interest in the lands beyond the Mississippi River. In 1803, after the United States purchased Louisiana from the French, Arkansas formally became American. In 1805, his lands became part of the Louisiana Territory, in 1812, after the creation of the state of Louisiana, they became part of the newly created Missouri Territory.
The development of new lands by American settlers caused discontent among the Indians who lived here, which led to numerous conflicts. Gradually, by the mid-thirties of the 19th century, most of the Indians were driven west to the Oklahoma reservation .
In 1819, the Arkansas Territory was created, which, in addition to Arkansas proper, included most of modern Oklahoma. In 1831, in the gradually developing Arkansas, proposals began to be made for the organization of statehood, and on June 15, 1836, Arkansas became the twenty-fifth state of the United States.
Now, about 200,000 people live in the capital and largest city of Arkansas, Little Rock, and about 430,000 residents in the urban agglomeration that has formed around it.
Traditionally, the most important economic activity in Arkansas is agriculture. More rice is grown in Arkansas than in any other US state. Other important agricultural crops are cotton, soybeans, and wheat. The state is among the best in terms of poultry and fish farming. Among the natural resources mined in the “Natural State” are bromine (the largest producer in the world), gypsum, and oil. Timber cultivation and timber processing are very well developed in Arkansas. The most important branches of industry are food, pulp and paper, chemical, and mechanical engineering. Tourism brings in a significant portion of the state’s income.