Togo 1982

By | September 13, 2023

Togo in 1982: A Historical Snapshot

Togo, a West African nation with a complex history and diverse culture, underwent significant political and social changes in 1982. This comprehensive overview provides insight into Togo during that time, covering its historical background, politics, society, economy, and international relations.

Historical Background:

To understand Togo in 1982, it’s essential to consider its historical context:

  1. Precolonial Togo: The region now known as Togo was inhabited by various ethnic groups, including the Ewe, Mina, and Kabye. These groups had distinct cultures, languages, and social structures.
  2. Colonial Rule: Togo was colonized by Germany in the late 19th century and later became a League of Nations mandate territory administered by France and the United Kingdom after World War I.
  3. Post-World War II: After World War II, Togo became a United Nations Trust Territory under French administration.
  4. Independence: Togo gained independence from France on April 27, 1960, with Sylvanus Olympio becoming the country’s first president.

Politics in 1982:

In 1982, Togo was characterized by a one-party state system and political instability:

  1. Gnassingbé Eyadéma: General Gnassingbé Eyadéma, who came to power in a military coup in 1967, was the president of Togo in 1982. His rule was marked by authoritarianism and a single-party system.
  2. RPT Dominance: According to ehealthfacts, the Rally of the Togolese People (Rassemblement du Peuple Togolais, RPT) was the sole legal political party, and political opposition was suppressed.
  3. Political Repression: Togo experienced a history of political violence and human rights abuses, with the regime cracking down on dissent.
  4. Regional Relations: Togo maintained relations with neighboring countries, particularly Benin and Ghana, and was part of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

Society and Culture:

Togolese society in 1982 was marked by its ethnic and linguistic diversity, with over 40 ethnic groups and languages spoken:

  1. Ethnic Groups: The largest ethnic groups included the Ewe, Kabye, and Mina, each with its own cultural traditions and languages.
  2. Religion: The majority of the population practiced indigenous African religions, often blended with elements of Christianity or Islam. Traditional beliefs played a significant role in daily life.
  3. Cultural Heritage: Togo had a rich cultural heritage, with traditional music, dance, and art being important expressions of cultural identity.
  4. Education: Access to education was limited, particularly in rural areas, but efforts were made to improve literacy rates and expand educational opportunities.


The Togolese economy in 1982 faced challenges related to its heavy reliance on agriculture and limited industrialization:

  1. Agriculture: Agriculture was the backbone of the economy, with subsistence farming and cash crops such as cotton, coffee, and cocoa being key contributors to GDP.
  2. Industry: The industrial sector was underdeveloped, with limited processing of raw materials and a lack of significant manufacturing activities.
  3. Infrastructure: Togo had limited infrastructure, which hindered economic development and connectivity within the country.
  4. Economic Dependence: The economy was heavily dependent on external aid and assistance, particularly from France and international organizations.

International Relations:

Togo’s international relations in 1982 were influenced by its political dynamics and regional context:

  1. Cold War: The Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union had an impact on Togo’s foreign policy, with the regime receiving support from both sides at different points in its history.
  2. Regional Cooperation: Togo was a member of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which aimed to promote economic cooperation and regional stability.
  3. Relations with Neighbors: Togo had sometimes strained relations with neighboring countries, particularly Ghana and Benin, due to political differences and border disputes.
  4. French Influence: France maintained a significant influence in Togo, given the historical colonial ties, and provided both economic and political support to the regime.


In 1982, Togo was a country marked by political authoritarianism, limited economic development, and a complex social fabric. The regime of Gnassingbé Eyadéma had a lasting impact on the country’s political landscape, with a single-party system and political repression characterizing much of its rule.

Despite these challenges, Togo’s cultural diversity and traditions continued to be a source of pride for its people. Efforts to improve education and infrastructure were underway, albeit at a slow pace.

Togo’s history took many twists and turns in the decades that followed, with political and social changes shaping the nation’s trajectory in the years to come.

Primary education in Togo

Primary Education in Togo: A Comprehensive Overview


Primary education is a critical stage in a child’s development and a cornerstone of national development. In Togo, a West African nation with a rich cultural heritage and diverse society, primary education plays a vital role in preparing young learners for their future. This comprehensive overview explores primary education in Togo, including its historical context, structure, curriculum, pedagogy, challenges, and recent developments.

Historical Background:

To understand primary education in Togo, it is essential to consider its historical context:

  1. Precolonial Education: Before European colonization, Togo had a rich tradition of informal education, with knowledge and skills passed down through oral traditions and apprenticeships within communities.
  2. Colonial Legacy: Togo was a German colony from 1884 to 1914, after which it was divided between French and British spheres of influence. French Togo, which included the majority of the territory, later became a League of Nations mandate territory under French administration.
  3. Independence: Togo gained independence from French-administered Togoland on April 27, 1960, with Sylvanus Olympio becoming the first president.
  4. Educational Reforms: After independence, Togo underwent educational reforms aimed at expanding access to education and promoting national development.

Structure of Primary Education:

According to allcitycodes, the primary education system in Togo is structured as follows:

  1. Age Group: Primary education typically covers six years, starting at age six, with students entering at Cours Préparatoire (CP) and progressing through to Cours Elémentaire 2 (CE2).
  2. Compulsory Education: Primary education is compulsory in Togo, but challenges related to access and quality persist.
  3. Curriculum: The curriculum is designed by the Ministry of National Education and includes subjects such as mathematics, French language, local languages, science, social studies, physical education, and moral and civic education.
  4. Language of Instruction: French is the primary language of instruction in Togolese schools, although local languages may also be used to some extent.


The Togolese primary education curriculum is designed to provide students with a well-rounded education that includes the following key subjects:

  1. French Language: French language instruction focuses on reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills, aiming to develop proficiency in the official language.
  2. Mathematics: The mathematics curriculum covers foundational concepts, including arithmetic, geometry, algebra, and problem-solving skills.
  3. Local Languages: Some primary schools in Togo may offer instruction in local languages, particularly in the early years, to facilitate understanding for students who may not have strong proficiency in French.
  4. Science: Science education introduces students to subjects like biology, chemistry, and physics, emphasizing basic scientific principles and practical knowledge.
  5. Social Studies: Social studies encompass subjects like geography, history, civics, and culture, providing students with an understanding of their country and the world.
  6. Physical Education: Physical education classes aim to promote physical fitness, teamwork, and the importance of a healthy lifestyle.
  7. Moral and Civic Education: This subject teaches students values, ethics, and good citizenship, emphasizing the importance of social responsibility.

Pedagogy and Teaching Methods:

Teaching methods in Togolese primary education emphasize traditional approaches:

  1. Teacher-Centered: Togolese classrooms are typically teacher-centered, with instructors leading lessons and students following along.
  2. Rote Learning: Rote memorization plays a significant role in the learning process, particularly for subjects like language and mathematics.
  3. Standardized Testing: Student progress is often evaluated through standardized examinations, with a strong emphasis on achieving specific academic milestones.
  4. Limited Technology Integration: The integration of technology in primary education is relatively limited, particularly in rural areas.

Challenges in Primary Education:

Togo’s primary education system faces several challenges:

  1. Access to Education: Ensuring access to education, particularly in rural and remote areas, remains a challenge due to limited infrastructure, teacher shortages, and distance to schools.
  2. Quality of Education: Disparities exist in the quality of education between urban and rural areas, with urban schools generally having better resources, facilities, and qualified teachers.
  3. Teacher Shortages: Some regions experience shortages of qualified teachers, impacting the quality of education and the teacher-to-student ratio.
  4. Multilingual Education: Togo’s linguistic diversity presents challenges in providing education in multiple languages, as many students speak indigenous languages at home.
  5. Gender Disparities: Gender disparities in enrollment and completion rates persist, with girls facing additional barriers to education in some regions.

Recent Developments:

Togo has taken steps to address these challenges and improve primary education:

  1. Infrastructure Development: Efforts have been made to improve school infrastructure, including the construction of new classrooms and the provision of learning materials.
  2. Teacher Training: Initiatives to improve teacher training and professional development have been implemented, with a focus on improving teacher quality.
  3. Curriculum Reforms: The Togolese government has introduced curriculum reforms aimed at modernizing and diversifying the education system to better meet the needs of students in the 21st century.
  4. Multilingual Education: Some programs have been developed to support multilingual education, recognizing the value of linguistic diversity in Togolese society.
  5. Inclusive Education: Togo is working to promote inclusive education practices, ensuring that children with disabilities and those from diverse cultural backgrounds have access to appropriate support and facilities.