Thailand 1995

By | December 17, 2021

Thailand has a population of 59,095,419. (1994 estimate), with an average increase still high despite the efforts of population planning (1.9% in the period 1987-92), but in the process of further contraction. The birth rate fell to 16.8ı and the mortality rate to 4.8ı. Particularly significant of the improved social and health conditions is the reduction in infant mortality (8,3ı). Contrary to almost all the countries of South-East Asia, the population is very homogeneous: it is made up of over 98% of Thai and a small Chinese minority; Buddhism is dominant (95%) over other religions (Islam: 3.8%; Christianity: 0.5%). The average density, of 115 residents / km 2, is abundantly exceeded in the central-southern area, while it is reduced in the marginal areas: on the northern mountains and along the Kra isthmus.

The capital, Bangkok, located on the banks of the Chao Phraya, has experienced an explosive development in the last two decades, both in terms of the number of residents (in 1993 5,572,712) and as a social and productive organization. International tourist destination and home to an airport of great geographical centrality (Don Muang), it has a modern hotel structure and good road and rail links (Chiang Mai-Singapore). Despite this, it is affected by the evils caused by demographic congestion and by the peripheral slums in which emigrants and dispossessed take refuge, sometimes at the limits of human dignity, who daily spill over the city in search of work. The other centers, provincial capitals, have a much lower population. Only Nonthaburi (259,028 residents), Nakhon Ratchasima.

Although 57% of the active population is dedicated to agriculture and only 17.5% is employed in industry, the economy of Thailand shows favorable prospects, that a certain political stability (despite the numerous coups of the armed forces), a certain monetary stability (inflation among the lowest in ASEAN, Association of South-East Asian Nations), as well as foreign investments seem to guarantee. The arable land represents 39% of the surface, 6.1% is made up of meadows and pastures, 27.3% of forests and woods, while the remainder is considered uncultivated and unproductive. Rice production dominates (190 million q), followed by cassava, corn, sorghum, sweet potato, sugar cane and numerous other products (pineapple, bananas, papaya, citrus fruits, coconuts). Various types of precious wood come from the forest (teak, yang, sandalwood and ebony) for a total production of 37.6 million m 3, and rubber (1.4 million t), of which Thailand is the world’s leading producer. There are over 7 million cattle, and there are also numerous buffaloes (4,747,000 head). Also due to the Buddhist diet, fishing takes on great significance, both marine and fluvial or aquaculture: globally the catch reaches nearly 3 million tonnes per year. Agriculture and fishing are undergoing continuous modernization and feed a good export current (very strong in the case of rice): the sector contributes about 10% to the formation of the gross domestic product. But much greater, from this point of view, is the importance of the industry from which 39% of the national income comes thanks to the substantial export of products.

Thailand is also rich in tin, mostly mined in the sea, and also in precious stones, tungsten, iron ores and lignite. Oil and natural gas represent a modest resource for the time being, mostly used in thermoelectric power plants. The industry uses agricultural products (sugar refineries, distilleries, breweries, canning industry, tobacco factories, cotton mills). In the metallurgical industries, tin, cast iron and steel are processed. The chemical industry, in particular that of fertilizers, the refineries, the cement factory and, last in order of time, the electronics industry are making a statement.

Growing development distinguishes tourism which has by now organized a network of itineraries and hotels among the most efficient. Most of the visitors (5,800,000 in 1993) come from Japan, the United States, Europe and Taiwan. The viability, certainly not adequate, is however among the most developed in South-East Asia with 3728 km of railways and about 46,000 km of roads, at least those of the main routes are quite modern. Despite the continuous intervention of the military in the country’s politics and despite the high number of residents and refugees from neighboring countries, thanks to the high agricultural production, the conspicuous ethnic homogeneity and the development of civil services, as well as the progressive industrial affirmation, the Thailand consolidates its position among the emerging countries. For Thailand travel information, please check

Thailand 1995