Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The political structure of Tajikistan is based on the last revision of the constitution in May 2016. The president has the greatest executive power in the republic, who appoints the prime minister and ministers and has the right to dissolve the parliament. The current constitution envisages a 7-year term of office for the president, which can be served a maximum of two times. The last election was held in October 2020, the next one should be held in 2027. Check equzhou to learn more about Tajikistan political system.
The head of government is the prime minister, who is appointed by the president and approved by parliament.
The role of the parliament in Tajikistan is weak and basically only confirms the policy of the president. The Tajik parliament Majlisi Oli is bicameral. The Majlisi Milli (upper house – People’s Assembly) has 33 deputies, with 25 deputies elected by local bodies of representative power, 5 elected by the president. The Majlisi namojandagon (Upper Chamber – House of Representatives) consists of 63 deputies who are elected directly by the citizens.
- Republic of Tajikistan – the official name of the country
- Dzhumkhurii Tochikiston – the official name in Tajik
- Tajikistan – the usual short form of the name
The President of the Republic of Tajikistan is Emomali Šaripovič RACHMON.
Composition of the government:
- Prime Minister – RASULZODA Qohir
- First Deputy Prime Minister – SAID Davlatali
- Deputy Prime Minister – GULMAXMADZODA Davlatshox Kurbonali
- Deputy Prime Minister – SATTORIYON Matlubaxon
- Deputy Prime Minister – USMONZODA Usmonali Yunusali
- Minister of Justice – ASHURIYON Muzaffar Kurbonmuhammad
- Minister of Agriculture – KARIMZODA Sadi Gafor
- Minister of the Interior – RAHIMZODA Ramazon Hamro
- Minister of Foreign Affairs – ASLOV Sirojidin Muhridinovich
- Minister of Education and Science – IMOMZODA Muhammadyusuf Saydali
- Minister of Labour, Migration and Employment – AMONOVA Shirin Shodiyevna
- Minister of Finance – KAXXORZODA Fayziddin Sattor
- Defense Minister – MIRZO Sherali
- Minister of Transport – IBROHIM Azim
- Minister of Economic Development and Trade – ZAVKIZODA Zavki Amin
- Minister of Health and Social Protection of the Population – ABDULLOZODA Jamoliddin Abdullo
- Minister of Culture – DAVLATZODA Zulfiya Davlat
- Minister of Energy and Water Resources – DJUMA Daler
- Minister of Industry and New Technologies – KABIROV Sheralisho Olimovich
- Chairman of the State Committee for National Security – YATIMOV Saymumin Sattorovich
- Chairman of the State Lands and Geodesy Committee – XODJAZODA Orif Ashuri
- Chairman of the State Committee for Investment and State Property Management – QODIRZODA Sadi Sanginmurod
Foreign policy of the country
Tajikistan’s foreign policy is aimed at strengthening regional security, protection of domestic and foreign investments. Currently, Dushanbe depends on Russia and China to make decisions on economic and political issues. Moscow’s influence has an economic dimension, social (RU employs around 3-4 thousand Tajik labor migrants), military (Russia’s largest military base outside Russian territory is located on the territory of TJ), etc. In addition, the TJ has historically good relations with Russia also within the framework of membership in regional organizations where the RF has a dominant position. Tajikistan has not yet joined the Eurasian Economic Union, which includes Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia (Uzbekistan only has observer status). The Tajik government is in no hurry to join the Eurasian Economic Union, which shows its desire to be an independent country and not depend on Moscow’s decisions.
On the other hand, the influence of China, which is the main investor and creditor of the Tajik economy, is growing considerably in Tajikistan. According to the data of the Ministry of Finance, the volume of the country’s external debt reached billion USD, while China’s share is billion USD, i.e. almost 40%. Therefore, the Tajik government must look for other partners in order to balance these power interests by strengthening cooperation with its neighbors and with other European countries. Check recipesinthebox for Tajikistan defense and foreign policy.
In the Central Asian region, Tajikistan has rather ambiguous relations with its neighbors. Iran-Tajik relations are quite strained due to restrictions on the activities of the Islamic Restoration Party of Tajikistan (SOIT) in the country and the Iranian funding of SOIT. Tajikistan shares a border with Pakistan, in connection with which India is trying to promote good relations with Tajikistan in case of renewed Kashmir crisis with Pakistan. Currently, a new, geographically shortest land route to the Persian Gulf ports on the coast of Pakistan is opening for Tajikistan. This is happening thanks to the so-called quadrilateral traffic and transit agreement – Quadrilateral Traffic in Transit Agreement (QTTA) – signed between Pakistan, China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. Although the agreement was signed in Islamabad in 1995, it lay on ice for almost 15 years, so to speak. It was not until the beginning of China’s One Belt One Road initiative that other countries, namely Tajikistan, Afghanistan and India, began to show interest in becoming members of the QTTA transport pact. Membership in QTTA will allow goods flows to or from landlocked Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, access to the Pakistani ports of Karachi and Gwadar, which will thus represent for these landlocked Central Asian republics the closest maritime connection with the surrounding world, and (which is very important) without transit dependence on the dangerous territory of Afghanistan. The new transport corridor envisages the use of the modernized Karakoram Highway, connecting the Pakistani province of Gilgit-Baltistan with the western Chinese province of Xinjiang. In addition, Tajikistan is among the countries favored under the GSP system, to which the EU provides a special incentive regime for sustainable development and good governance. The system ensures the complete suspension of approximately 66% of customs items. In this way, the Tajik government tries to diversify the directions of its external economic policy.
Tajikistan has been a member of the WTO since 2013.
Population – estimate as of 5/15/2022 – 9,937,080
Population density – 68.1 people/km 2 (2022)
Estimated population age distribution in 2021:
0-14 years: 33.9% (males 1,701,602/ females 1,642,556)
15-64 years: 62.7% (men 3,061,149 / women 3,119,899)
65 years and over: 3.4% (men 140,765/ women 191,630)
(Source: UN Data)
Settlement uneven. 90% of the population lives on 7% of the territory. The most densely populated areas are the capital city of Dushanbe, the Gissar valley, the Vachš river valley and the surroundings of the city of Khujand. On the other hand, only 3.4% of the population lives in the Upper Badakhshan Autonomous Region, which occupies 45% of the territory of Tajikistan. The amount of urbanization is 27.3%.
In 2021, the increase in population represented approx. 2.32%, while the birth rate was estimated at 27.8 births/1,000 population and the death rate was deaths/1,000 population, the balance of migration was -migrants/1,000 population.
The national composition is very varied, as is usual in the region. About 140 nationalities live here. According to the results of the population census in 2010, there were: 84.3% Tajiks, 13.8% Uzbeks, 2% – Russians, Kyrgyz, Arabs, etc. However, the ratio of nationalities changes with the return of the population of other nationalities after the civil war, so the share of Tajiks relatively reduces
96.7% of the population profess Islam, the rest other religions. Official statistics do not distinguish between Sunnis and Shiites, or members of non-Islamic faiths.
According to the Constitution, Tajik is the official language and Russian is the language of communication. However, Russian is mainly spoken by the urban population. It is only used to a limited extent in the countryside. The exception is the Pamir region, where each valley speaks its own dialect, which is unintelligible in the other, and all consider themselves the truest Tajiks. So the result is that they communicate with each other in Russian. In addition, the knowledge of Russian is supported by Russian satellite broadcasting, as the domestic one does not interfere here. Members of nationalities have the right to use their native language, the most frequently used minority language is Uzbek – especially around the city of Kurgan-Tjube and in the Sogd region. However, written Tajik (essentially Farsi with Russianisms) differs greatly from spoken Tajik used in neighboring countries, especially Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.