Tag Archives: Study in Romania

Located in one of the great historical crossroads of Europe, Romania has interesting characteristics also from a geographical point of view, ranking among the Carpathian States as regards the structure of the relief, among the Danubian ones for hydrography, crossed as it is by the lower course of the Danube, which actually has its mouth here, and finally between the Pontic countries for its coastline. However, Romania, placed astride the Carpathian ridge that unites the three traditional regions (Moldavia, Wallachia, Transylvania), has preserved strong national ties, due to a very ancient indigenous civilization, historical heritage and language, which is linked to the Latin group and is therefore foreign to that of the other peoples of the Balkan and Slav area, like the name itself “Romania”, used from the century onwards. XVI to indicate the Latin heritage, explicitly emphasizes. An important country in terms of population, cultural tradition and economic resources, Romania had to cross in the last decade of the century. XX a very deep crisis, generated by the autarchic policy imposed by the communist leader N. Ceausescu, in addition to the confusion and uncertainties following the violent fall of his regime: improvised economic reforms and then left to half, a democratic political dialectic flawed and distorted by decades of absolutism and arbitrariness, the spread of corruption and violence have brought the economy national team on its knees and the population on the verge of pure survival, putting at risk the very rules of civil coexistence. It is no coincidence that in the 1990s Romania was one of the European countries with the highest emigration rate (after Albania). Only with the beginning of the new century, thanks also to the legislative and functional adjustments requested by the European Union to carry on the Romanian association process (scheduled for 1 January 2007) which brought a little more order and security, the country has begun to resume the path of growth; Unfortunately, many problematic elements, especially as regards social justice, bureaucratic corruption and the standard of living of the poorest strata, continue to be present and threaten national development. According to COUNTRYAAH, Romania is a nation in Eastern Europe, the capital city of which is Bucharest. The latest population of Romania is 19,237,702. MYSTERYAROUND: Lists and descriptions of main religions and beliefs in Romania, including religion demographics and statistics on Christianity, Islam, Judaism, etc.
CLIMATE
The climate is substantially conditioned by the continental air masses; the Carpathian arc in fact closes the country on three sides and the opening onto the Black Sea exerts very modest climatic influences. There is therefore a harsh thermal regime, with cold winters (which in the Carpathians the altitude makes it particularly rigid) and hot summers; the intermediate seasons are very short. Often even in Constance, on the Black Sea, the thermometer drops below zero and the January average in Bucharest can be below –5 ºC; summer averages are around 21-22 ºC for the capital. Precipitation is irregular, albeit with maximums, as mentioned, in the period May-June and in autumn, and on the whole scarce; 600 mm of precipitation per year falls on average, often in the form of snow (the snow remains on the ground for a long time even in the plains) with maximums of 1400-1500 mm on the reliefs and minimums in the lowlands: Dobruja, particularly marginalized, receives on average only 300 mm of rains a year.

Romania Demographics 1998

Population The country (22. 474. 000 residents In 1998) is associated with the European Union (its inclusion in it fully, when required, is not expected in the short term: it is assumed date of 2007), is a special partner of the Western European Union and is part of the ‘Black Sea cooperation zone’ with Bulgaria,… Read More »

Romania Demographics 1992

On 21 November 1991, following the insurrection of December 1989 which led to the deposition and execution of Prime Minister N. Ceauçsescu, in power since 1974, the new constitution was launched, approved by a popular referendum celebrated on 8 December., according to which the head of the new state (the Republic of Romania) is the President of… Read More »

Romania Agriculture, Breeding and Forests

Agriculture. – Romania is still a “new country”, essentially agricultural. The extension of the cultivated area, lower in 1918 than it was previously in the whole of the Romanian countries all united, has not ceased to increase, as the situation created by the war improved. It went from 8,600,000 hectares in 1920 to 12,750,000 in… Read More »

Romania Music

Until the whole century. XVIII musical life in Romania is limited only to popular tradition: the myths of Greek-Latin classical antiquity relive in the epic songs of the people and the instruments in use derive from the classical ones: the flute, the syringe, the buccium (the buccina of the Romans), the cobza or cobuz, a… Read More »

Romania Literature – From the 18th to the 19th Century

With the activity of Antim in Muntenia and Cantemir in Moldavia a cycle of Romanian history and literature ends: starting from 1711-16, in fact, the Turks imposed the regency of Greek-Phanariot princes on Moldavia and Wallachia. Their domination determined the decline of the Slavic culture and the establishment of the Greek one. The concomitance of… Read More »

Romania Literature

A popular literature substantially similar to the present one must have existed in Romania well before the century. XV, when the first documents of cultured literature begin to appear. The very name of Cântece b ă trânesti (Songs of the old) shows how the Romanian people are aware of the antiquity of their popular narrative… Read More »

Romania Hydrography

Thanks to the extension of the mountains, Romania, despite its steppe-like climate, has a well-organized hydrographic network, except in a part of the Carpathian foreland plains (southern Oltenia, south-eastern Muntenia and Bessarabia) and in Dobruja, in which the water draining on the surface does not represent more than a quarter of the precipitations and where… Read More »

Romania Finance and Money

Finance. – The first budget of unified and enlarged Romania (1919-20) represents a major effort towards a return to financial normality. The war and the invasion first, then the purchase of new regions, with a different financial and monetary system as well as equally damaged and disorganized by the conflict, had however profoundly altered the… Read More »

Romania Figurative Arts

The monuments of ancient Dacia art, and the Byzantine religious monuments of the fifth and sixth centuries, preserved in the Dobruja (foundations of churches in the city of Tropaeum Traiani), did not follow, while the consecutive barbarian invasions hindered the development of the arts. On the other hand, a persistence of popular art must be… Read More »

Romania Ethnology and Folklore – Germans

The German element in Romania is gathered in a compact linguistic island, which includes villages and cities. Numerically, the strongest group is formed by the Banat Saxons, established there in the century. XVIII, coming from the upper and middle Rhine, the Saar, Alsace, Württemberg and Baden. Immediately after, it would be necessary to place the… Read More »

Romania Demographics 1956

Division. – Since 1956 the Romanian Republic has been divided into 16 regions, plus the autonomous city of Bucharest. The city of BraŞov, one of the most industrial in Romania, has taken the name of Orasul Stalin since the end of 1948. Population. – The last census of the population (1956) gave a result of… Read More »

Romania Demographics 1939

Territorial variations. – During the Second World War there were numerous territorial variations that occurred in Romania. First of all it lost Bessarabia and northern Bucovina occupied by the USSR on June 27-30, 1940 (50,400 sq. Km. And 3,700,000 residents); then the northern CriŞana, the MaramureŞ and the northern and eastern part of Transylvania, including… Read More »

Romania Contemporary Literature

Contemporary literature oscillates between the two poles of “traditionalism” and “modernism”. Prose writers belong to the first trend: Mihail Sădoveanu, fruitful novelist, who, the perfect interpreter of the Moldavian popular soul, seems to embody in his prose a crystalline clarity as in his massive and good-natured figure of a gentle giant and dreamer, the type… Read More »

Romania Cinematography

The first screening took place in Bucharest on May 27, 1896, and in 1897 short documentaries were made by Paul Menu. The first feature films, directed by Grigore Brezeanu, were the melodrama Amor fatal (1911) and the historical film Razboiul independenţei (1912, The War of Independence), also known as Independenţa României (Independence of Romania, which… Read More »

Romania Arts and Architecture

The barbarian invasions did not allow the continuity of artistic expressions based on the tradition of the century in the Romanian land. 5th and 6th, attested by the foundations of Byzantine churches found in Tropaeum Traiani. Religious architecture (from the 13th century) shows strong regional differences in Romania until the middle of the 19th century. In… Read More »

Romania Architecture and Cinema

Architecture. – In the absence of organic interventions of urban redevelopment and enhancement of pre-existing buildings, the Romania has in any case tried, not without internal contrasts and divergences, to promote new architectural policies. Qualified Romanian journalists in the sector have clearly expressed this research through their many specialized magazines, from «Arhitectura» to «Arhitext», from… Read More »

Romania Archaeology

Investigations continued in all areas of archaeological research, but there are no substantially new data for prehistory and the Bronze Age. The culture of Suciu de Sus has recently been the subject of great enhancement, showing a gradual evolution towards Hallstatt with the abundant findings of the burial necropolis of Lăpuş in Maramureçs (objects in… Read More »

Romania Territory and Government

Present-day Romania is a state of 18 million residents, spread over a territory of 294,967 sq. Km., Which essentially occupies the entire lower basin of the Danube. It reached this extension for the peace treaties that followed the war of 1914-18; previously, the populations, mostly Romanian, gathered within the present borders, had lived for long… Read More »

Romania Religion and Education

Religion. – Christianity must have been introduced in Romania by the first Roman colonists, among whom they could not miss – as in the rest of the Empire in the century. II – followers of the religion of Christ; in any case, there is no sure news about it. It is certain instead that, at… Read More »

Romania Society and Economy

Population, society and rights Romania is the second largest country by population in Central-Eastern Europe after Poland, although between 1995 and 2005 there was a demographic decline of about two million people due to both emigration and the decline in births. To date, it is estimated that about two million Romanians reside abroad: however many… Read More »

Romania Language

Romanian belongs to the family of Romance or Romance languages; it is the only neo-Latin language that has survived to this day in Eastern Europe. Romanian has four main dialects. The Dacoromian (dacoromân) spoken in the territory of the present-day kingdom of Romania, as well as in part of the Banat belonging to Yugoslavia, in some village… Read More »

Romania Geopolitics

The territories of modern day Romania include the historic regions of Wallachia and Transylvania. Wallachia gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, while only after the Balkan wars and the First World War Romania reached a dimension comparable to that of today, with the annexation of Transylvania to the west, Bessarabia and Bucovina to… Read More »

Romania Economy Between 1960 and 1975

Since 1968 the republic of Romania has been divided into 40 districts (judete), 236 cities (oras), of which 47 are considered major urban areas, i.e. municipalities, and 2706 municipalities. The capital Bucharest (1,934,025 residents In 1977 in the urban agglomeration) is a municipality with a district status (see table). Bucharest, by far the most conspicuous… Read More »

Romania Economic Conditions

The development process that began after the Second World War was very rapid until the 1970s, but subsequently the vulnerability to negative international economic conditions, acting on a still unbalanced and unstable production system, slowed economic growth.. The basis for the socio-economic development policy was similar to those of the other socialist countries: nationalization of… Read More »

Romania Defense and Security

The most important element of the Romanian security and defense policy in recent years has been the entry into NATOin 2004 and the strengthening of relations within the Atlantic Alliance in 2014 following the worsening of the crisis in Ukraine. This factor has contributed to strengthening relations between Bucharest and the United States and has… Read More »

Romania Climate

Due to its situation and its relief, Romania has a continental climate with a mountainous tendency in the Carpathian regions, with a steppe tendency in the plains. The annual average temperatures are 2 ° lower than those of the Atlantic coast at the same latitude; the 9 ° isotherm passes through Bucovina and that of… Read More »

Romania Armed Forces

Army. – The Romanian army is a standing conscript army. Its first nuclei date back to the village militia, created in 1831, and reorganized by Alessandro Cuza, in 1860. On the eve of the world war, it possessed about 7,000 officers, 138,000 troops, 3,500 horses, 220 batteries. During the World War, it mobilized a total… Read More »

Romania Government and Military

Constitutional order. – The constitution proclaimed, as mentioned, on February 27, 1938, replaces that of March 29, 1923. For it the king is head of state and, as such, participates in the legislative, executive and judicial powers. Succession is governed by Salic law in the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen family. The various cases of lack of successor are… Read More »

Romania Arts Part III

Surrealism is represented by some artists who maintain in their works a balance between the transcription of reality and its projection into the fantastic: F. Niculiu (born in 1928), S. Bălasa (born in 1932), S. Iclozan (born in 1938), S. Câltea (born in 1940), P. Ribariu (born in 1939), I. Gînju (born in 1942). In… Read More »