Tag Archives: Study in Peru

The state of Peru corresponds territorially to the central section of the Andean belt, a region that was the matrix of the Inca civilization, of which the current state, although Hispanized, is in its own way the heir. On the Andean highlands, Peru takes on its most peculiar characteristics, but the country also includes the coastal strip and a section of the Amazonian lowlands, covering a very large area that makes it one of the largest political units in Latin America. The current borders correspond only roughly to those established in 1824, when the Spanish rule actually ended; they have in fact undergone numerous corrections. The considerable extension of the country does not correspond to a very high population and this is because the uninhabitable lands are vast, occupied by deserts, mountains and dense forests. Peru is perhaps the South American country that best expresses opportunities and contradictions, historical values ​​and physical contrasts, cultural continuity and political instability. A complex mixture that projects it into the future due to its economic potential but which, at the same time, anchors it to the past due to the strong presence of traditional life models. The signs of the ancient Inca past, witnessed by the remains of cities such as Machu Picchu, coexist with those of the recent past, characterized by forms of neocolonial exploitation based on a centralized political-economic model. According to COUNTRYAAH, Peru is a nation in South America, the capital city of which is Lima. The latest population of Peru is 32,971,865. TRANSPORTHINT: Lists and descriptions of main religions and beliefs in Peru, including religion demographics and statistics on Christianity, Islam, Judaism, etc.
From a climatic point of view, Peru presents very strong contrasts. The Andean region has its own characteristic climate and at the same time, with its mountain bulwark, determines a clear differentiation between the eastern part of the country (the East) and the western coastal part (the Coast). This has a typically desert climate as the Peruvian coast, with its particular SE-NW orientation, is only lapped by the winds produced by the cyclonic masses that form on the Pacific. The cold current of Humboldt has its part because it determines a condensation of the humidity carried by the sea winds, preventing the penetration towards the interior of the air masses. garúa), which represents almost the total rainfall of the region. In Lima annually approx. 20-30 mm of rain, values ​​more or less extensible to the entire arid coast, where however the temperatures are not those of deserts due to the mitigating action of the sea (in Lima, the temperature fluctuations range from 15 ºC to 20 ºC). The climate of the region is however tropical, although there are considerable variations going from S to N, where the desert is much warmer. Rising towards the Andes, the climate changes, but the most important effects concern the temperatures, because even here the rainfall remains low. The damp contributions on the Andean chain are mainly those of the E and SE trade winds, which however are considerably reduced over 2500 md ‘ altitude and are also barred by the longitudinal arrangement of the mountain ranges. Towards 3800-4000 m, the altitude of the Andean basins, rainfall is minimal: it does not exceed 50 mm per year (36 mm in Cerro de Pasco, located at 4338 m of altitude) and occurs during the months of austral summer, from November to February-March. The average temperatures in the same locality are around 4-5 ºC all year round, albeit with strong temperature variations, even of over 20 ºC. The climate begins to change as soon as you look out onto the eastern side, that is, along the valleys that descend towards the Amazonian lowlands; it also changes as it proceeds towards N, in the areas located at equatorial latitudes (Peru is close to the Equator) and more open to Atlantic influences. Huancayo (3550 m), rainfall is close to 700 mm and temperatures fluctuate between 13 ºC and 10 ºC. Below 2700 m, on the eastern side, the humid climate dominates, with abundant rainfall (over 2500 mm) and uninterrupted cloud formations. It is the Amazonian climate which, although presenting seasonal rhythms, is substantially characterized by high humidity, almost constant temperatures (22-25 ºC) and almost daily rainfall, if we exclude the months of July-August.

Peru Road Network

As of December 31, 2012, Peru’s network of roads consisted of 140,672 kilometers, of which 18,699 kilometers (13%) were paved, 41,126 kilometers (29%) were gravel or other improved surfacing and 80,848 kilometers (57%) were completely unpaved. The Red Vial Nacional consists of 24,593 kilometers of road, of which 14,748 kilometers (60%) are paved. The Red… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Pucallpa, Peru

The climate of Pucallpa According to shopareview, Pucallpa is a remote settlement in Peru. The town was founded in the 19th century by missionaries who wanted to convert the local population from this point. Its location between the Andes Mountains and the tropical rainforest made the city virtually inaccessible. However, in the early 20th century,… Read More »

Climate and Weather of Machu Picchu, Peru

The climate of Machu Picchu According to citypopulationreview, Machu Picchu is one of the main tourist attractions of Peru. This ancient Inca complex attracts thousands of tourists every year. The site is high in the mountains, with the peak of Huayna Picchu towering above it. Machu Picchu was founded in the 15th century by the… Read More »

Peru Culture of Business

Culture of business dealings Subchapters: Introduction Addressing Business Meeting Communication Recommendations Public holidays Introduction The Peruvian market, similarly to other Latin American markets, requires mainly Spanish and personal contact. However, the Covid era has brought changes, negotiations are moving to a virtual level. It is even more important to thoroughly check potential business partners. Even… Read More »

Peru Basic Information

Basic data Capital Lima Population 31.23 million (2017) Language official languages ​​Spanish, Quechua, Aymara Religion 76.9% Roman Catholic, 14.1% Evangelical State system presidential republic Head of State Pedro Castillo Head of government Anibal Torres Vasquez Currency name salt Travel Time shift -6 hours (in summer -7 hours) Economy 2021 Nominal GDP (billion USD) 448.4 Economic… Read More »

Peru Travel Facts

Peru is located in South America, bordering Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador and Colombia. The third largest country on the continent is rich in culture, nature and beautiful landscapes. The Andes, the Amazon, rainforests – there is a lot to discover! Capital City Lima Size 1.285.216 km² Resident 31.237.385 Official Language Quechua, Aimara, Spanish Currency Peruanischer… Read More »

Peru Arts and Music

ART AND ARCHITECTURE In the colonial period, the Peru reflects the path of Spanish art and architecture, albeit conditioned by the climate, geology and also by indigenous cultural heritage. In the coastal region, adobe and brick constructions prevailed, in the Andean area those in stone. Frequent earthquakes destroyed most of the buildings but there are… Read More »

Peru Relief Part II

The outer ridge line in the southernmost part is separated from the inner one by the deep, populous valley of the Río Santa, called Callejón de Huaylas ; it does not exceed 5000 m. high and is called Cordillera Negra (because it has no permanent snow). The Santa in its rapid descent (2000 m. In… Read More »

Peru Relief Part I

Three great regions are distinguished in Peru, which differ greatly from one another in terms of relief, morphology, climate and vegetation, in short for their physical characteristics, as well as for anthropogenic and economic conditions. They are: 1. the coastal region; 2. the Sierra, that is the mountainous region that is part of the Andean… Read More »

Peru Recent History Part II

The general elections of April 8, 1990 confirmed the decline of the left. In the consultations for the Congress, no party obtained a majority: FREDEMO won 63 seats in the Chamber and 20 in the Senate, while APRA dropped to 49 and 16 seats respectively; Cambio 90, a new independent team, obtained 34 deputies and… Read More »

Peru Recent History Part I

The elections for the Constituent Assembly in June 1978 represented the first step towards the return to power of civilians; the lack of participation, in controversy with the military government, of the center-right formation Acción Popular (AP) favored the victory of the Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA, with 35% of the votes and 37 seats… Read More »

Peru Music

Peruvian music of the first quarter of the 20th century is characterized by the nationalistic current, which, born in the last part of the 19th century, was inspired by the musical forms of folklore or drew from it the subjects for the works. The music Quechua and the mestiza they manifest themselves to varying degrees… Read More »

Peru Material Culture

The news on the civilization of the Inca period necessarily refers to the last stage, that is, when they could be collected in the written narration of the chroniclers, both on the basis of direct observation of these, and on the basis of information obtained on the place from different sources. In general, the judgment… Read More »

Peru Literature in the 1960’s

The Sixties mark in the narrative of Peru, next to the explosion of the work of M. Vargas Llosa (see App. IV, iii, p. 792 and in this Appendix), the conclusion of the parable of JM Arguedas (m suicide in 1969), which began in the 1930s with the first stories. After Todas las sangres (1964;… Read More »

Peru Literature

From the 16th to the 19th century Together with Mexico, Fr kept alive and continuous contacts with the motherland, also through the direct intervention of the Castilian writers. In the second half of the 16th century. the university flourished in Lima, and the art of printing was very active. G. de la Vega el Inca… Read More »

Peru in the 1990’s

With the Constitution of 1979 the Peru, after years marked by a succession of coups d’état and governments subject to the protection of the military, initiated a complex process of democratization, made difficult by the persistence of contradictions and unsolved problems. Poverty and strong social inequalities, a huge foreign debt, the looming presence of the… Read More »

Peru in the 1950’s

Population. – The population of Peru, according to an evaluation of 1959, is 10,524,000 residents (9 per km 2). Since the last official census of the population, which dates back to 1940, there has therefore been an increase of almost 3.5 million residents, with an increase of 48%. From an administrative point of view, since… Read More »

Peru in the 1930’s and 1940’s

The gen. Oscar R. Benavides ruled with energy not devoid of wisdom. The elections of 1936 were apparently about to give victory to LA Eguigúren, supported by “Apra” (see, in this second App., I, p. 223), when the Benavides canceled them and had their mandate extended for three years. In the international field, relations with… Read More »

Peru in the 1930’s

After the border issues with Colombia were resolved through the agreement of May 1934 (Buenos Aires protocol), which recognized Colombia as the city of Leticia, there were still disputes with Ecuador, again for border issues: however, on 12 March 1936 an agreement was signed between the two governments, for the appointment of a joint commission… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part V

A comforting fact, however, in the midst of the turbulent history of political factions, is the constant economic-demographic progress within Peru, which is completed with the adjustment of the borders in relations with foreign countries. As at the time of the conquest, the Indian mass still remained at the basis of Peruvian life; and of… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part IV

Therefore, when Peru, having imposed an exit duty on saltpetre with the result of seeing the Bolivian export desert its ports in favor of the Chilean ones, asked Bolivia to also impose exit duties on the Atacama saltpeters, the Bolivia accepted the Peruvian proposal, despite the contrary provisions of an agreement made by it in… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part III

Spain then sent in 1862 a small squad under Admiral Pinzón to occupy the Chincha Islands; an occupation which, being recklessly presented under the aspect of claiming Spanish rights not extinguished, raised a crawl space in all the Spanish-American nations, and pushed the Spanish government to replace the Pinzón with Admiral Pareja. An agreement entered… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part II

La Mar then moved against Colombia itself for the possession of the provinces of Jaén and los Maynas, which he – a native of Guayaquil – needed to be entitled to the presidency of Peru, according to the new constitution of 1828; but he was defeated in Portete de Tarqui, in the province of Quito,… Read More »

Peru History: Independence Part I

Despite the decline and neglect of the motherland, Peru still constituted, at the beginning of the century. XIX, the political, moral and military center of Spain on the South American continent; and this – together with the greater geographical, political and economic isolation – explains how the independence movement in Peru took place later than… Read More »

Peru History Since 2006

The second government of Alan García, which began on July 28, 2006, ushered in a five-year period of sustained economic growth, fueled by the boom in the prices of exported mineral resources (especially copper and silver) and the influx of private foreign investments in strategic sectors mining and oil. However, the five years of García’s… Read More »

Peru History Before Independence

Pre-Columbian era The territory of Peru odierno includes the largest part of the cultural area in which, in the course of almost three millennia, the major civilizations of South America developed, the last of which was the vast Inca Empire faced and defeated by the Spanish conquerors in the 1532-36. Among the most characteristic aspects… Read More »

Peru History – The Spanish Conquest Part II

A no less inequitable than laughable trial was set up against Atahualpa, accused of fomenting anti-Spanish movements, and condemned to death, leaving him the choice between conversion and the halter or between ancestral paganism and the stake: he naturally opted for death less cruel and, having received baptism, was strangled and buried with the greatest… Read More »

Peru History – The Spanish Conquest Part I

The country that the Spaniards called Peru was the heart of the Inca empire at the time of the discovery. Relatively recent political creation, which had paved the way a few centuries before the domination of the Pirhuas, organizers of the last pre-Inca empire, the Tahuantinsuyu (ie “The four cantons”) or Incap Runam (“Vassals of… Read More »

Peru Geopolitics

Seat of the most famous Andean civilizations (first of all the Inca one), modern Peru seeks to regain a prominent place in the region and part of that international prestige it had in past centuries. Blocked for decades by chronic political instability, economic underdevelopment, deep inequalities and weak state institutions, Peru has been an example… Read More »