Tag Archives: Study in Albania

Albania, republic in Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. The country is mostly mountainous; the once marshy coastal area is now drained. Economically, Albania is one of the poorest countries in Europe; the majority of those in employment work in agriculture. The most important mineral resources are petroleum and chrome ore. The main port is Durrës. According to COUNTRYAAH, Albania is a nation in Southern Europe, the capital city of which is Tirana. The latest population of Albania is 2,877,808. MYSTERYAROUND: Lists and descriptions of main religions and beliefs in Albania, including religion demographics and statistics on Christianity, Islam, Judaism, etc.

History: In ancient times the country was subjugated by Rome, in the Middle Ages it was partly ruled by Bulgaria, then by Byzantium, and since 1343 by the Serbs. Since 1468 it was under Turkish rule; it was during this period that most of the Albanians became Muslims. In 1912 Albania became independent as a principality; It became a republic in 1925 and a kingdom in 1928. In 1939 Italy annexed the country.

In 1946 Albania became a People’s Republic under the leadership of Enver Hoxha (1908–85). In 1961 there was a break with the Soviet Union; In 1968 the country withdrew from the Warsaw Pact. After a long period of close ties with China (until 1979), Albania pursued a policy of complete self-isolation. In the course of the political changes in Eastern Europe, the first free parliamentary elections took place in 1991. Since then, Albania has endeavored to become closer to the international community (EU, NATO) and to improve its relations with neighboring countries. The major problems of domestic politics, however, hinder the country’s development to this day. In 2009 Albania was admitted to NATO. Ilir Meta (* 1969) has been President of the Republic since 2017.

RELIGION
The constitution (Article 24) guarantees religious freedom and expressly excludes the establishment of a state religion (Article 10). The Islamic religious community (including the dervish order of the Bektaschi), the Catholic and the Orthodox Church are recognized by the state as traditional religions of Albania in the legal status of legal persons. The other religious communities acquire the legal status of non-profit associations after the mandatory registration with the State Secretariat for Religions. Specific questions relating to relations between the state and the Catholic Church are regulated in the concordat-like agreement concluded between the government and the Holy See in 2002 (supplemented by an additional agreement in 2007).

According to the 2011 census, in which around 20% of respondents refused to provide information on the optional question of religious affiliation, around 57% of the population were Sunni Muslims, around 10% Catholic (center: Shkodër with a seminary) and around 7% Albanian -orthodox Christians. Until the end of the communist era, Protestantism was no longer represented in Albania – with the exception of a few underground Adventists; Since 1991 a number of evangelical mission societies have been established. About 2% of the population belong to the Islamic Sufi brotherhood of the Bektashi. The historical roots of the Jewish community (around 100 Jews still live in the country today) go back to Roman times. Only 2.5% of those questioned described themselves as atheists.

Religious policy under communist rule has followed an increasingly restrictive course since 1946 and culminated in religious legislation in the 1970s that was unique in its legal hostility to religion in the former communist states. First of all, the freedom of opinion and belief guaranteed in the 1946 constitution was severely restricted from 1949 by religious decrees, in 1967 public religious practice was prohibited and Albania was declared the “first atheistic state in the world”. There was a cautious change in religious policy after the death of E. Hoxha (1985); however, the formal lifting of the religious ban did not take place until 1990. On the part of the state, the remaining mosque, church and monastery buildings were returned to the religious communities, which began to rebuild their organizational structures. In 1991 the Council of Albanian Muslims was reconstituted; In 1992, for the first time in 50 years, Catholic bishops were appointed and the Ecumenical Patriarch initiated the reconstitution of the Albanian Orthodox Church.

Albania Travel Facts

Based on map by DigoPaul, the Balkan state of Albania has had an eventful history and was strongly influenced by Stalinism until the early 1990s. The country borders with Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia and Greece. With its beautiful coastal landscape and magnificent mountains, it is still considered an insider tip in Europe. Capital City Tirane Size… Read More »

Albania Encyclopedia Online

Southern European state, in the southwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula. It borders to the North with Montenegro, to the East with the formally Serbian region of Kosovo and the (former Yugoslav) Republic of Macedonia, to the SE and to the South with Greece ; a O overlooks the Adriatic Sea. For Albania public policy, please… Read More »

Albania Demography

The independence of Albania was proclaimed by an assembly meeting in Durres in December 1919; a provisional constitution was approved in Lushnjë in January 1920, and in December 1921 Albania was admitted to the League of Nations. After three years of provisional government, the Republic was proclaimed in January 1925; but it was later replaced… Read More »

Albania 1948

The union of Albania with Italy, which took place in January 1939, favored the progress of knowledge of the country, both for the sending of study missions, including one promoted by the Italian Geographic Society, and for the constitution of a center of studies on Albania at the Academy of Italy, both for the work… Read More »

Albania 1961

According to the constitution of March 1946 (as amended in July 1950) in the Albanian people’s republic there is a single legislative assembly of 188 deputies (one every 8000 residents) Elected for four years in a single list by all citizens of both the sexes who have reached 18 years of age, with the exception… Read More »

Albania 1978

The state continues to hold its own with the constitution of March 1946 (modified in July 1950). Following the increase in the number of residents, the People’s Assembly increased from 188 to 214 members. In 1958 the Albania adopted a new administrative division into 26 districts, which replaced the pre-existing prefectures. In 1967 they included… Read More »

Albania 1991

Demographic and social conditions. – At the 1982 census the population was 2,786,100 residents, With an increase of 46.2% in 22 years. In 1989 the estimated residents amounted to 3.2 million, corresponding to a density of 111.3 residents per km 2. The increase in the population was favored by the rapid decrease in the mortality… Read More »

Albania 2006

HUMAN AND ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY State of Mediterranean Europe, located in the south-western sector of the Balkan peninsula. At the 2001 census the population was equal to 3,087,159 residents (3,563,110 according to a 2005 estimate). Despite a birth rate of 15.2 ‰ (2005) and a high share of the young population, and despite the fact that,… Read More »

Albania 2015

Demography and economic geography. – State of Mediterranean Europe, located in the southwestern sector of the Balkan peninsula. At the 2011 census the population was 2,831,741 residents, With a decrease of 7.7% compared to the 2001 census, due to an emigration rate which remains quite high (−3.31 ‰ in 2014) and to a limited natural… Read More »

Albania Society and Economy

Albania has also cultivated a privileged relationship with the USA, with which it maintains strong relations and aimed at strengthening strategic cooperation. Alongside the EU and the US, a third direction of Albanian foreign policy turns towards the Balkan area. Albania aims to build good relations with neighbors. However, the traditional support assured to the… Read More »

Albania History and Military

The name appears for the first time in the middle of the century. II d. C. in Ptolemy’s Geography (III, 12, 20), which recalls the ‘Αλβανοί, an Illyrian people living in the country between Likos (Alessio) and the Candavici Mountains, and their capital Albanopoli, of uncertain identification. But in documents and historical sources, the name… Read More »

Albania Geopolitics (2015)

Since the Second World War, Albania has been characterized by a Stalinist, isolationist and anti-revisionist communist regime. Observance and political practice put Albania in sharp contrast to the official Soviet doctrine adopted since 1956 by the then secretary of the Communist Party of the Communist Party Nikita Khrushchev, making the Hoxha regime a unique case… Read More »

Albania Climate

The climate. – Up to now, there is a scarcity of precise information on the climate of Albania, due to the lack of long-term operational weather stations. While Hahn had already coordinated the data from Durres and Valona, ​​(Meteorol. Zeitschr., 1914, p. 190 ff.), More recently V. Conrad also used the observations made in meteorological… Read More »

Albania 1938

Physical geography. – The official data on the Albania area is always square kilometers. 27,538, but an areometric calculation, performed on elements provided by the aforementioned Water Service, would instead give a much higher value, 28,743 sq km. Of these, 51.7% are above 600m above sea level, 34.2% above 900m and certainly no more than… Read More »

Albania Industries and Trade

The same reasons just mentioned explain the poor development of real industries in the country. Apart from those strictly connected with agriculture, already mentioned (dairy, oil mill), and some others (pasta), we can remember the manufacture of cigarettes (Scutari, Durazzo), that of terracottas (Kavajë) and more recent printing industry (Tirana). The old domestic industries (silver… Read More »

Albania Human and Economic Geography 2000

Population Estimates from 1998 gave the country a population of 3. 119. 000 residents. In the 1990s the demographic growth rate decreased significantly (2 ‰ in the 1990-97 period); the crisis situation in which the country finds itself also feeds strong migratory currents, often clandestine. From an ethnic point of view, the population remains homogeneous:… Read More »

Albania Society and Family

The primitive cell of Albanian society is the family, which is generally very numerous, not so much because the Albanians are very prolific, but because usually, especially in Northern Albania, the male children of the same father, even after having contracted marriage, they remain with their wives and children in the paternal house, and thus… Read More »

Albania Religion

The Albanian people follow two religions: Islam and Christianity. Islamism. – It was imported to Albania with the Turkish conquest of the century. XV, first professed by the conquerors alone and then propagated with violence and the confiscation of the assets of rich people. Many of those who did not want to apostatize emigrated and… Read More »

Albania Contemporary History Part V

From the religious point of view, the coexistence of religions does not seem to give rise to serious drawbacks. There is no state religion. The Catholics who live in the great majority in the north of Albania religiously depend on Rome with the intermediary of an apostolic delegate. Negotiations are underway for the conclusion of… Read More »

Albania Medieval and Modern History Part I

After the definitive subdivision of the Roman Empire into eastern and western parts, the region now called Albania and then, instead, divided into Praevalitana (between the mouths of Cattaro and the Shkumbî) and Epirus nova, up to the south of the Gulf of Valona, ​​it passed under the control of Byzantium, while Dalmatia, from the… Read More »

Albania Medieval and Modern History Part II

The fourth crusade, as it is known, instead of carrying out the proclaimed liberation of the Holy Sepulcher, delayed in reconquering Zadar from the Venetians and in constituting the Latin feudal empire of Baldovino in Constantinople: and in Venice was given nominal possession over all Albania and the ‘Epirus. But, while the Marquis of Monferrato… Read More »

Albania Medieval and Modern History Part III

The republics of Venice and Ragusa and Giorgio Balša, son of Balsa I, who, on the death of Stefano Dušan, had taken the place of his weak son in the lordship of the district of the Zeta had been a great help in the conquest of Durres. (Montenegro), forming an independent state there. The Balša… Read More »

Albania Medieval and Modern History Part IV

But in 1467 Giorgio Castriota died of fever in Alessio, where he had gathered the major Albanian princes for a congress; and with the death of the hero the Albanian league and its victories ended. Only the glorious memory of his name remained of Castriota’s work, destined to form traditional cement for irredentist aspirations, the… Read More »

Albania Medieval and Modern History Part V

As already mentioned, the spirit of rebellion against the sultan’s sovereignty must not, however, be considered as general. Islamism, mainly for reasons of material interests, was making great progress; and alongside the Muslim Albanians who followed the sultan’s armies in the various battlefields of Europe and Asia, there were also Christian Albanians, especially the Mirditi,… Read More »

Albania Languages Part I

Albanian is spoken in a large area that only partially corresponds to the Kingdom of Albania today. This zone can be defined as follows: on the eastern shore of the Adriatic, between the 39th and 42nd degrees of latitude, that is, between Epirus and Montenegro; from Santi Quaranta an ideal line can be drawn that… Read More »

Albania Languages Part II

Albanian is an Indo-European language; this was stated by J. v. Xylander, by Albania Schleicher and G. Stier, but was amply proved by Bopp in his work Über das seinen Albanesische in verwandschaftlichen Beziehungen (in Abhandl. D. Preuss. Akad. Der Wiss., 1854). Nevertheless, some linguists were not persuaded, p. ex. Pott, who even much later,… Read More »

Albania Languages Part III

Alongside many Illyrian-Albanian correspondences (see Jokl, in Reallexikon der Vorgesch., I, p. 86 ff.), There are other Traco-Albanian correspondences (Jokl, ibidem, p. 88 ff.), Not always easily determinable by the lack of material available to us and the proximity that seems to have existed since ancient times between the Thracian and the Illyrian (Jokl, in… Read More »

Albania Languages Part IV

The Latin element of Albanian is in great agreement with the Romanian, with the Dalmatic and with the Latin elements penetrated into the Serbo-Croatian, into the Neo-Hellenic, both phonetically and lexically. From the lexical point of view we can remember * filianus “godson”> alb. fijan, rum. fin ; hospitium “house”, alb. š tepí, neoell. σπίτι,… Read More »

Albania in 1990s Part I

The political and social instability of the Albania in the 1990s it was largely due to a persistent economic crisis and the absence of a widespread democratic culture, both legacies of the E. Hoxha regime. The end of the communist government, which marked the beginning of the transition process to multi-party and a market economy… Read More »

Albania in 1990s Part II

If Western countries continued to offer their support to Berisha in the name of international stability, internal consensus quickly waned. The new Constitution, which was supposed to protect human rights, guarantee the separation of powers and protect private property, but which at the same time assured the president such extended powers as to allow him… Read More »