Tag Archives: Study in Afghanistan

An Islamic country with a Sunni majority, Afghanistan is divided in two by the imposing Hindukush chain, a geographical watershed between the northern steppes and the agricultural regions of the southern slopes, and is closed in the far north-east by the Pamir mountains, which Marco Polo called it “the roof of the world”. Territory of contact between large neighboring regions, Afghanistan has long been a melting pot of different languages ​​and cultures (Indian, Chinese, Persian, but also Greek and Arabic) as well as the cradle of the main religions: here were born Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Buddhism, brought by merchants and monks to China and Japan via the Silk Road, and Islamism developed hereorigins, based on the revolutionary precepts of justice and equality. This is a set of elements which over time has made it difficult to form a national identity and socio-territorial unity, as the war events that marked the beginning of the millennium still strongly testify. Geographical borders were also defined only in colonial times, when the country assumed the role of buffer state in the Central Asian chessboard. Seat of one of the oldest cities in the world (Balkh, center of Buddhist, Altaic and Persian art and architecture) and expression of one of the most flourishing and refined empires in history, the Timurid one, responsible for the fusion of Central Asian and Persian cultures of fundamental importance for the future of Afghanistan, the country was also prey to Mongols, Uzbeks, Persians first, and a land of occupation by Soviets, Taliban and Americans later. Afghanistan has therefore lived its centrality and heterogeneity condition for millennia without knowing how to draw expendable advantages for internal development that is truly mature and stable. According to COUNTRYAAH, Afghanistan is a nation in Southern Asia, the capital city of which is Kabul. The latest population of Afghanistan is 38,928,357. ACEINLAND: Lists and descriptions of main religions and beliefs in Afghanistan, including religion demographics and statistics on Christianity, Islam, Judaism, etc.
The valleys are generally wide and crossed by rivers that in spring, when the snow melts, become tumultuous. They are part of three distinct basins, corresponding to the three sides that are the first regional division of the country: to the N they flow into the Amudarja, to the E in the Indus valley, to the S in the Helmand, the largest river in Afghanistan., or they end in endorheic depressions including that of Gaud-i-Zirreh occupied by extensive marshes and salt lakes. A large section of the area, to the E of this, is constituted by the dune desert of Rīgestān.

Aridity, as in all of Southwest Asia, is essentially the result of an excess of continentality. The sad-u-bist ruz (wind of 120 days) which blows constantly and violently between Khorāsān and Sistān is also due to the high pressures of Central Asia, in the SW of the country, at the end of the summer. In the winter and spring periods, with the zenith shift of the Sun and the easing of the high pressures, precipitation occurs. However, they are scarce: they vary from 50 to 150 mm in the plains and rise up to 300 mm on the reliefs and in the eastern section, marginally exposed to monsoon influences. The strong diurnal and seasonal temperature variations are due to the continentality and general altitude of the country; the average temperature is 12-13 ºC, passing, in Kabul, from a winter average of 0 ºC to a summer average of 25 ºC. In the southern and eastern sections there is an almost tropical climate, generally mild, which allows Mediterranean crops.

Afghanistan Culture of Business

Subchapters: Introduction Addressing Business Meeting Communication Recommendations Public Holidays Introduction Considering the historical footprint of Czechoslovakia, the investment climate for Czech entities is generally favorable. The Afghan government has identified priority sectors in which it wants to support foreign investors. These are primarily the sectors of agriculture and its associated areas; construction (with an emphasis… Read More »

Afghanistan Basic Information

Basic information about the territory Subchapters: System of governance and political tendencies in the country Foreign policy of the country Population The system of governance and political tendencies in the country The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a presidential system, in which the president is both head of state and government, with a bicameral parliament… Read More »

History of Afghanistan

By the 1st millennium BC. e. on the territory of modern Afghanistan, several independent cultural and historical regions (proto-states) have already formed – Arachosia, Drangiana (later Seistan), Areya, Bactria, Margiana, Gandhara. In the 6th c. BC. they became part of the Persian state of the Achaemenids, and then were subjugated in the 4th century. BC.… Read More »

Afghanistan Travel Facts

Afghanistan is a country that today is primarily associated with war, the Taliban, hardship and misery. But that was not always so. The country was once rich in cultural diversity and Afghanistan also has a lot to offer in terms of landscape. Magnificent mountains and fresh mountain air – especially the Hindu Kush is very… Read More »

Afghanistan Children’s Encyclopedia (2005)

Afghanistan The gateway to Central Asia Crossroads between East and West, Afghanistan is one of the poorest countries in the world, where it is very difficult to find the means to survive. This is partly due to the adverse environmental, social and economic conditions, but above all to the many wars that have involved the… Read More »

Afghanistan Ethnography

The territory included in the borders of the Afghan state was occupied in ancient times by īrānic peoples; but subsequent immigrations have constituted a very complex ethnic framework, in which the îrānic elements properly called are alongside Indo-Aryan and Turkish-Mongolian elements. The Tāgīk (Tajiks), the Qizilbāsh and the Afghāni proper belong to the ī r… Read More »

Afghanistan Under the Taliban Regime

The 1993 Islāmabād agreement, by which G. Hekmatyar (leader of the party of Islam) became prime minister, failed to stabilize the situation. In the stalemate a new armed group emerged, known by the name of Ṭālibān (from the Arabic ṭālib ‘student’), made up of young Afghans of Pashtūn origin, coming from the Islamic schools of… Read More »

Afghanistan Victims

The political structure provisionally given to the country derived from the procedures for concluding these operations: essentially entrusted to an ad interim head of state, residing in Kābul and protected by an international military force under a UN mandate, the ISAF (International Security Assistance Force), and indirectly controlled by a group of ‘strongmen’ with their… Read More »

Afghanistan – The Difficult Modernization

Due to its strategic position, as the gateway to India, the new Afghan state greatly interested Great Britain, which cared to prevent a rival power from settling there. In 1809 the first Anglo-Afghan treaty was stipulated, aimed at preventing a possible French or Persian invasion of India. The subsequent expansion of the influence of Russia,… Read More »

Afghanistan before Afghanistan

In the first historical times the present territory of Afghanistan, conquered by Cyrus, fell under Persian control: the inscription of Darius in Bisutun recalls, among the oriental satrapies of the Achaemenid empire, Bactria and Gandhara. In 329 BC Alexander, in the footsteps of Darius, reconquered the Afghan provinces which had, in the meantime, recovered independence.… Read More »

Afghanistan – Taliban and International Community

The tightening of the Taliban’s position vis-à-vis the staff of Western humanitarian organizations – both UN agencies and other independent organizations – that took place during 2001 is just one more element in this process. Relations between the Taliban and the international community began to deteriorate in 1998, when the United States reacted to the… Read More »

Afghanistan 2001

Destruction of the Buddhas “Only God Almighty is worthy of being worshiped, nobody else and nothing else.” Thus read an edict, a fatwa, of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, the official name of the Taliban state, issued on February 26, 2001 and signed by Mullah Mohammad Omar al Mujahed, his supreme guide, also called Amir-ul-Mumenin… Read More »

Afghanistan in the 1980’s and 1990’s

The withdrawal of Soviet troops from the Afghanistan, completed in February 1989, and the gradual reduction of US support for the Islamic guerrillas did not in any way facilitate the return to a normal situation in a country ravaged by civil war. The pro-Soviet regime of M. Najibullah failed in its attempt to implement a… Read More »

Afghanistan Between 1978 and 1990 Part I

According to the census of June 1979, the population of the Afghanistan it was 13,051,358 residents, excluding nomads (estimated at around two and a half million people); official 1987 estimates credited the combined figure of 18.6 million. Refugees who have taken refuge abroad and have not yet returned must be deducted from this figure. Their… Read More »

Afghanistan Between 1978 and 1990 Part II

On December 27, 1979, Soviet troops invaded the Afghanistan Amin was deposed and killed, and was replaced by B. Karmal, leader of the Parcham faction . The governments of Western and Islamic countries reacted with official positions: from the American president J. Carter to the regime of the ayatollah Khomeini, to that of General Zia-ul-Haq’s… Read More »

Afghanistan Between 1978 and 1990 Part III

The second political orientation, also made up of various camps, referred to the same intellectual and rationalist principles and appealed to the tradition of the Prophet and the Šarya (Islamic law), denying much of the tradition that had emerged from history. Religion tended to be ideologized (hence the use of the term Islam), emphasizing the… Read More »

Afghanistan Between 1978 and 1990 Part IV

On the international level, during 1988, two events changed the military and political situation to the detriment of the Mujahideen: the mysterious “ plane crash ” of August 17, in which Pakistani president Zia-ul-Haq was killed, and the election to the American presidency of G. Bush, with a less ideological attitude than Reagan. While on… Read More »

Afghanistan 1978

According to very recent estimates, the population of the Afghanistan it has 18,750,000 residents, on an area of ​​649,969 km 2 ; the average density is therefore 28.8 residents / km 2, but the population, over 80% dedicated to agricultural and pastoral activities, is concentrated above all in the less arid valleys and in urban… Read More »

Afghanistan Archaeological Research – Islamic Period

Research in the field of Islamic archeology began with a prospection by J. Hackin in 1936 in the Afghan Sīstān during which important remains belonging to buildings and cities partially destroyed by the invasion of Tamerlane in 1384 were reported. on older foundations prior to the Arab invasion. Particularly notable are the ruins of Tar-o… Read More »

Afghanistan Archaeological Research – Prehistory

Afghan archeology is still very little known due to the vastness of the territories still imperfectly known and the complexity of the problems it presents. The most valid contribution to his knowledge was brought by the French archaeological mission which began its work under the guidance of the great Alfred Foucher, in 1922, which was… Read More »

Afghanistan 1961

According to recent estimates the Afghanistan it has a population of about 12 million, almost a fifth of which belong to nomadic tribes. In the last decade, the economic conditions of the Afghanistan have slightly improved, thanks to the financial aid granted by the USA (53.5 million dollars from 1949 to 1956) and the USSR… Read More »

Afghanistan in the 1930’s

From the beginning of 1929 the reformer king Amānullāh found himself facing the revolt of misoneist elements, encouraged by the class of religious leaders and led by a man of the people, Bačiah-i Saqqā, who became the emir Ḥabībullāh. The fates were uncertain. At the end of February 1929, the future ruler, Moḥammed Nādir, arrived… Read More »

Afghanistan Exploration

The first news spread in Western culture about Afghānistān dates back to over twenty-two centuries ago, after Alexander of Macedon had traveled in every direction the country and the neighboring districts for almost four years (330-327 BC). Arrived there from the Persian territories to the SE. of the Caspian, descended from the Arius valley (today… Read More »

Afghanistan Hydrography

The rivers of Afghānistān flow into the three basins of the Indus, the Helmand and the mū Daryā. The region from which the main ones depart is in the Kōh-i Bābā; the watershed between the non-drainage region and the peripheral one proceeds along the crest of the Hindū Kush, passes W on the Kōh-i Bābā,… Read More »

Afghanistan Transportation

Communications. – The Russian railway of Turkestān reaches as far as Termez, and the Samarkand-Krasnovodsk railway has a branch from Merw to the border post of Kushinski, connected to Merw by the telegraph; in India the north-western railway reaches New Ciāman, within the Afghan border. A line of about 400 km would be enough. through… Read More »

Afghanistan 1929

Muslim state of Anterior Asia. The name Afgh ā nist ā n (seat of the Afgh ā n) does not correspond to the ethnographic conditions (there are numerous non-Afghan populations within the borders, and many Afghan tribes outside), and has only been in use since the middle of the century. XVIII, when the supremacy of… Read More »