Syria Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Syria Basic Information

Subchapters:

  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Official name of the state: Syrian Arab Republic

System of Government and Political Tendencies: The Syrian Arab Republic is declaratively a republic with a unicameral parliament and a presidential system of government with the existence of the position of Prime Minister. The current president, Bashar al-Assad, has been president since 2000 and defended his current post in the presidential elections held on 05/26/2021, and his presidential mandate was extended for another seven years. The current Syrian government is chaired by Hussain Arnús, appointed by the president to his post in August 2020. In the Syrian unicameral parliament, the so-called National Progressive Front has a majority, which mainly consists of representatives of the Syrian Socialist Baath Party and 11 other smaller parties. According to the current constitution from 2012, which introduced, among other things, a plurality of political parties, the Syrian parliament is the main legislative body. However, an important legislative function is held by the Syrian president himself, who issues presidential decrees. In fact, the main executive and legislative officer in the country is the Syrian president, who also has a key role in appointing the prime minister and individual ministers. Despite the constitutionally enshrined political plurality, the main parliamentary political party is the Syrian Socialist Baath Party, whose formal chairman is Bashar al-Assad. Government composition and distribution of portfolios: In 2020, President Bashar al-Assad appointed members of the Syrian government headed by Prime Minister Hussein Arnús. Despite the constitutionally enshrined political plurality, the main parliamentary political party is the Syrian Socialist Baath Party, whose formal chairman is Bashar al-Assad. Government composition and distribution of portfolios: In 2020, President Bashar al-Assad appointed members of the Syrian government headed by Prime Minister Hussein Arnús. Despite the constitutionally enshrined political plurality, the main parliamentary political party is the Syrian Socialist Baath Party, whose formal chairman is Bashar al-Assad. Government composition and distribution of portfolios: In 2020, President Bashar al-Assad appointed members of the Syrian government headed by Prime Minister Hussein Arnús. Check equzhou to learn more about Syria political system.

The members of the current government are:

Hussain Arnús: Prime Minister

Ali Abdullah Ayyub: Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense

Faisal Miqdad: Minister of Foreign Affairs

Muhammad Abd al-Sattar al-Sajjid: Minister of Religious Endowments

Mansour Fadlallah Azzam: Minister of Presidential Affairs

Salam al-Saffáf: Minister for Administrative Development

Silwá Abdallah: Minister of Labor and Social Affairs

Suhajl Abdullah: Minister of Public Works and Housing

Iyad al-Khatib: Minister of Communications and Technology

Ríma al-Qadiri: Minister of Labor and Social Affairs

Talal al-Barázi: Minister of Domestic Trade and Consumer Protection

Lubána Mušawwah: Minister of Culture

Dáram Tabbá’: Minister of Education

Tamam Ra’d: Minister of Water Resources

Kanán Jághí: Minister of Finance

Zuhajr Khazím: Minister of Transport

Bassám Tu’ma: Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources

Ziyad Sabbagh: Minister of Industry

Muhammad Khalid al-Rahmoun: Minister of the Interior

Ahmad al-Sajjid: Minister of Justice

Nazira Sarkis: Minister of the Environment

Muhammad Ramí Martíní: Minister of Tourism

Muhammad Hassan Qataná: Minister of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform

Hasan al-Ghabbas: Minister of Health

Muhammad Sámir Al-Khalíl: Minister of Economy and Foreign Trade

Bassám Bashír Ibrahim: Minister of Higher Education

Hussein Machlúf: Minister for Local Administration

Abdullah Sára: Minister of Information

Ghassan al-Zamil: Minister of Electricity

Foreign policy of the country

Syria’s foreign policy is based on two basic strategic bilateral relations, with the Russian Federation and the Islamic Republic of Iran. Politically, economically and militarily, the Russian Federation plays a major role in Syria. The current Syrian government also finds political support in its relationship with the People’s Republic of China. The Syrian MFA states that in 2021, 51 diplomatic missions are accredited in Damascus, of which 19 are from the EU (of which 5 are permanently resident in Damascus, including the Czech Republic). Currently, the Syrian central government, with the help of its allies, controls roughly two-thirds of its pre-war territory. In northwestern Syria, the opposition enclave of Idlib remains controlled by armed groups with varying degrees of Islamist tendencies. Security tensions prevail in the south of the country. Asymmetric attacks on government security forces often occur here. The Euphrates River in eastern Syria delimits the zone east to the Syrian-Iraqi border, which is primarily under the control of the Kurdish self-government. In the northern part of this area, at the Syrian-Turkish border, there is a buffer zone controlled by Syrian armed opposition units in the presence of the Turkish army. In the area east of the Euphrates River, there are also military bases of the American, Russian, Iranian and Syrian armed forces. Check recipesinthebox for Syria defense and foreign policy.

Population

Area: 185,180 km² (of which 1% is water surface)

Border length: 2253 km (sea coast 193 km, Turkey 822 km, Iraq 605 km, Jordan 375 km, Israel 76 km, Lebanon 375 km)

Population: 20,400,000 (according to June 2021 estimate, source CIA World Factbook), of which approximately 60% live in urban agglomerations. Approximately 6 million were internally displaced, while million fled to another country (mostly to Turkey – million, Lebanon – approximately 1 million, Jordan – 661 thousand, Iraq – 248 thousand, Egypt 128 thousand).

Annual population growth: 5.32% (according to the estimate from 2021)

Birth rate: 2.85 children per woman

Literacy: 86.4% of women and 91.7% of men (from 15 years of age, 2015 estimate)

Religion: 87% Muslim, of which 74% Sunni Muslim and 13% Shiite Muslim (mostly Alawite, also Ismaili, Twelver), 10% (mostly Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic Church), 3% Druze

Poverty rate: more than 80% of the population in Syria lives below the poverty line (Oxfam estimate)