Sudan is a former English colony in Africa. The border countries are Egypt, Libya, Chad, Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Eritrea, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Central African Republic.
According to Franciscogardening, Sudan is Africa’s largest country and is divided into 3 regions: the Desert region (Sahara) in the north, the plains in the central part of the country and tropical rainforest in the south. The majority of the population lives in the areas along the Nile (Nahr an-Nil), and cotton is grown here. Port Sudan (Bur Sudan) next to the Red Sea is the shipping port for the country’s exports. About 60% of the country is characterized by desertification and desertification. Emissions from factories have polluted some coasts and rivers.
Sudan is not and has never been a nation state. Within Sudan’s official borders, people live with unequal ethnic backgrounds and with unequal languages; a total of about 110 odd languages are spoken. The population is divided into three main groups: to the north and around the Nile Valley live Arabs and Nubians, in the central part unequal, mainly in the 20th century immigrant Muslims and to the south peoples (Dinkas, Silluks, Nuirs, Barians). On the Darfur plateau live furies, on the Kordofan plateau people with Kordofan languages (koali, thumbs, bricks, etc.). In the Nubian desert and by the Red Sea live besjaer. About half of the population speaks Arabic. The majority of urban dwellers are found in the central and northern regions and are Muslims (70%), to the south, on the other hand, farmers partly with tribal or natural religions (12%) and partly Christians (17%).
Military regimes that favor Islamic-oriented governments have dominated the country’s domestic policy since the country became independent. Aside from the period 1972-1982, the country has been ravaged by civil war ever since, and Sudan has the rather dull record of having had war for the longest time on the African continent. The conflict is rooted in the economic, political and social oppression of Christian and African groups in northern Sudan by Muslim northern Sudan. A peace agreement between the warring parties was concluded on 9 January 2005.
Sudan is one of the three poorest countries in the world.
3000 BCE – The constant influence of the Pharaohs’ Egypt over the areas the Egyptians called Kush and the Greeks Nubia was one of the main reasons why in this period from the 3rd millennium BCE to about year 0 it was not possible to develop an independent state in the area.
800 BCE – The Kingdom of Napata came into being, where the decline of Egypt was so advanced that the country could be ruled by foreign dynasties.
730 BCE – The kings of Napata conquered Egypt and ruled the country until 663, when it was conquered by the Assyrians. At the same time, the fall of the dynasty caused its hinterland in Sudan – even though it was not occupied – to fall apart. But in its place 3 new kingdoms quickly emerged: Nobatia, Dongola and Alodia, which existed for the following 20 centuries.
600 – Under the influence of Ethiopia, the country converts to Christianity; a century later, the country was invaded by the Arabs, forcing King Dongola to open up to Arab traders and Islam. The collaboration was based on a treaty that lasted for over 600 years.
1100-1500 – Under Islamic influence, a number of tribal states, including Darfur, Kordofan, Silluk, and Fung, formed in a belt across sub-Saharan Africa’s. The development of these tribal states is almost unknown, but they are mentioned, among other things, in travel descriptions by Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406). During the same period, there was a large influx of Arabs, who became partly mixed with the local population. Around 1500 BCE, two Islamic sultanates were formed: Darfur in the west and Sannar in the area between the White and Blue Niles.
1820-22 – Sudanese territory is occupied by Egypt.
1823 – Khartoum is founded.
1881 – When Mohamed Ahmad proclaimed himself “Mahdi” (savior) and embarked on a crusade to save Islam, he met with immediate understanding – especially among the Arab-oriented people of the north.
1885 – Mahdi’s followers occupy Khartoum, defeat the English under General Gordon, and establish the first national government. But the British could not allow the existence of a state that set itself against the empire’s strategy of establishing one coherent corridor of colonies from Cairo in the north to Cape Town in the south.
1898 – The British launch a forceps operation, mobilizing troops from Cairo to Uganda and Kenya, attacking the Mahdi on two fronts.
1898 – September. France also had a transcontinental Africa project – albeit in an east-west direction -, was therefore also interested in Sudan and also sent troops there. Mahdi was now under attack on three fronts and was defeated. When the colonial armies subsequently met in Fachoda, there was close to open war between France and Britain, but the French ended up recognizing British supremacy over the Nile Valley, and an Anglo-Egyptian control of Sudan was established.
1899 – A British-Egyptian commonwealth is created (condominium: English-Egyptian Sudan).
1924-36 – Sudan was under English colonial rule, from 1936 again under British-Egyptian common rule.
1953 – In the 1953 agreement, both Britain and Egypt recognized Sudan’s own rule.
1954 – A parliament and a home government are formed (Prime Minister Ismail al-Azhari).
1956 – Sudan declares independence from Britain and has been a member of the United Nations ever since.
1958-64 – Sudanese territory is under the dictatorship of General Ibrâhîm Abbud.
1969 – May 25. In a coup, Jaafar Muhammad al-Numayrî (from 1971 under the title of President) came to power as head of a “Popular Revolutionary Committee”. Political parties were banned, Sudan was proclaimed a “democratic republic”, and extensive nationalizations were carried out.
1971 – An attempted communist coup in July, al-Numayrî begins repression against Sudan’s Communist Party, including the execution of Mahgoub’s general secretary. That same year, the Sudan Socialist Union (Sudan Socialist Union) was declared the only legal party.
1971 – Former Army officer Joseph Lagu succeeds in uniting the independence movements in southern Sudan with the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement. As a result, the dictatorship was part of
1972 in Addis Ababa an agreement on autonomy for three southern provinces through the intervention of the Ethiopian emperor Haile Salassi.
1976 – Sudan and Egypt sign a joint defense agreement, and al-Numayrî initially supports the Camp David agreement signed by Sadat, Carter and Begin. But as it became clear that this position isolated the country within the Arab world, Khartoum began to distance himself from Cairo and approach Saudi Arabia.
1980s – Islamist forces begin to increase their control over the area.
1981 – The fragility of the al-Numayrî regime became apparent when it was barely able to crush a coup – the 22nd since al-Numayrî had come to power.
1983 – Al-Numayrî is re-elected for the third time despite allegations of electoral fraud.
1983 – September. Sharia law was introduced without warning throughout Sudan, and a constitution was adopted with the stated purpose of transforming Sudan into a Muslim dictatorship, contributing to the efforts of southern Christian Christians to free themselves from oppression. These groups gathered in the Sudanese People’s Liberation Front (Sudan Peoples Liberation Army).
1985 – In April, al-Numayrî traveled to the United States to request assistance but was unable to return to his country: his defense minister and army general Abdul Rahman Suwar al Dahab had seized power.
1989 – A new military coup is carried out, bringing Islamists back to power, allowing only the Popular Islamic Front (from 1996 the People’s Congress).
1992 – In the first months of the year, the United States Office of Disaster Victims condemns the systematic extermination of people of Nubian descent and the expulsion of people to desert areas. These later searched for Khartoum, where they were collected in camps without drinking water or latrines.
1992 – In March, the government army, with the support of Ethiopia, Iran, and Libya, launches a military offensive against the People’s Liberation Army (FB), occupying the southern city of Bhor, a symbol of insurgency.
1996 – In the March elections, Bashir is re-elected with 76% of the vote. After 12 years of war, one million dead and 3 million forced to flee, the chances of peaceful coexistence between the “theocrats” in the north and the rebels in the south seemed to diminish.
1998 – In January, the United States imposes an economic blockade on Sudan. The superpower stated as a background that Sudan “supports international terrorism”, trains opposition groups from neighboring countries to destabilize them and otherwise lacks respect for human rights.
1998 – A Sudanese guerrilla assumes responsibility for the February assassination attempt in which Vice President Al Zubair Mohamed Saleh died when his plane crashed in the area around Nasir, 700 km from Khartoum. Iflg. observers get the Christian rebels in the People’s Liberation Army support from the United States through Uganda, Ethiopia and Eritrea. The Catholic Church in Sudan decided for the first time to participate in the peace talks between the Sudanese government and the SPLA, which agreed to negotiate.
1999 – A meningitis epidemic hits the country in March. In Khartoum alone, 30 people died a day. It was the suburbs of the capital that were hardest hit.
1999 – After an investment of 3 billion. dollars, the country was able to inaugurate a 1,500 km long oil pipeline in June. It made it possible to exploit oil sources that the war and the country’s political problems had hitherto made inaccessible.
2001 – In December, the government announces the release of more than 14,500 predominantly black slaves. It happened after a 6-month campaign by human rights organizations.
2002 – The United States has previously declared access to Africa’s oil a topic of “national interest”, and Secretary of State Colin Powell had ifbm. negotiations in Kenya threatened to triple US contribution to SPLA to 300 million US $ and to maintain the blockade of Sudan if no peace agreement was reached before March 2003.
2003 – According to Human Rights Watch reports, the Janjawid militias were already backed by the central government before 2003 with weapons, training and other equipment. It carried out the policy of the scorched earth and carried out ethnic cleansing where it penetrated. The assaults in 2004 had cost 10,000 lives, destroyed 2,300 villages and settlements and driven 1 million. on the run. They sought protection around Sudan’s cities, or crossed the border into Chad in an attempt to escape torture, rape and thefts carried out in complete lawlessness. The same year, the World Organization Against Torture criticized the use of torture against even children in Darfur.
2003 – Islamic leader Hassan al-Turabi is released in October. He had been imprisoned for several years. At the same time, the ban on his party, the Islamic National Front (NIF), was lifted. It was estimated that 92% of the population lived below the poverty line.
2004 – In June, US Secretary of State Colin Powell visited Sudan and tried to put pressure on the government to stop the attacks on the civilian population in Darfur. At the same time, the United States pointed out that the UN Security Council could impose sanctions if the violence continued. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated that if the Sudanese government could not protect the people of Darfur, then the international community would have to respond. The UN characterized the situation as currently the world’s most serious humanitarian disaster.
2005 – A ceasefire between the warring parties in the southern Sudanese territory is concluded and accepted, which at the time had claimed nearly 2 million victims, and the southern parts of Sudan were given a 6-year autonomy and then the right to hold a referendum on independence. Despite unequal agreements, the wars have not stopped, from July 2003 there are new conflicts, now also about the future of Darfur (see “The conflict in Darfur “).
2005 – January. With the peace agreement, rebel leader John Garang gets a share in Sudan’s oil millions. But the subjects are dissatisfied and see him as a corrupt, headstrong exile king who spends more time in foreign capitals than on the barren battlefield. As leader of SPLM, Sudan’s largest rebel group, he stands to gain control of 50 percent of the yield from the country’s 320,000 tonnes of daily oil production in the future, thanks to the peace agreement he signed with the country’s Islamic government on Sunday. An agreement that will enter into force after a period of six months and which will also make Garang vice-president of a new joint government. Read the article copied from Berlingske.dk here.
2005 – In March, it was estimated that 180,000 people had died during the conflict in Darfur in the previous 18 months, that 2 million. had fled from their villages to seek refuge in the main cities, and that 200,000 had fled to Chad. The UN Special Commission on Darfur concluded that the Sudanese government had not committed genocide – which would otherwise have ordered the international community to intervene – but that it had committed “serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law”, and that it can be prosecuted as crimes against humanity.
2005 – August. Vice President and Christian party leader John Garang, who had spearheaded a 20-year armed struggle against Muslims in northern Sudan, died in a plane crash. The government set up a commission of inquiry to clarify whether it was an accident or an assassination attempt. Read about the riots after the news of his death here in BT.
2007 – In May, Sudan and Chad enter into a peace agreement in Saudi Arabia to suspend clashes between the two countries’ 1,000 km long border, which forms the western part of Darfur. The conflict had formally started when Chad in December 2005 declared himself at war with Sudan because the Darfur conflict spread across its border.
2007 – In July, the UN Security Council adopts a resolution authorizing a force of 26,000 UN and African Union peacekeepers to enter Darfur. The Government of Sudan stated that it intended to cooperate with the Peace Mission and, moreover, continued to seek a negotiated solution as a political solution to the conflict.
2007 – December 17. It is estimated that more than 250,000 have lost their lives in the area in the last year and a half.
2008 – October 24. Peace between North and South Sudan has prompted thousands of South Sudanese to return home. But 26-year-old Abraham still hesitates. His story contains all the cruelty that Sudan’s long civil war has brought. Read it here.