Sri Lanka Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Sri Lanka Basic Information


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

System of governance:

Official name of the country: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

President: Gotabaya Rajapaksa (in office since 18/11/2019)

Government composition: Sri Lanka is in a politically turbulent time, with the country’s Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapaksa forced to resign following civil unrest. He was succeeded in office by Ranil Wickermesinghe, who was commissioned by President Gotabaya Rajapaksa to serve as Prime Minister on Thursday 12 May 2022. At the time of the STI update, the entire government had not been nominated. The Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Technology were retained by President Gotabaya Rajapaksa.

Members of the Government of Sri Lanka:

– Defense Minister: Gotabaya Rajapaksa

– Minister of Technology – Gotabaya Rajapaksa

– Minister of Finance:

– Minister of Housing and Urban Development: Prasanna Ranatunga

– Buddha Sasana, Minister of Religion and Cultural Affairs:

– Minister of Education:

– Minister of Health:

– Minister of Labour:

– Minister of Foreign Relations: Prof. GL Peiris

– Minister of Transport:

– Minister of Trade:

– Minister of Wildlife and Forest Protection:

– Minister of Public Services, Provincial Councils and Local Government: Dinesh Gunawardena

– Minister of Fisheries:

– Minister for Mass Media:

– Minister of Irrigation:

– Energy Minister: Kanchana Wijesekara

– Minister of Highways:

– Minister of Industry:

– Minister of the Environment:

– Minister for Water Supply:

– Minister of Plantations:

– Minister of Tourism:

– Minister of Ports and Shipping:

– Minister of Youth and Sports:

– Minister of Justice:

– Minister of Agriculture:

– Minister for Media –

Political tendencies :

Sri Lanka is a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. Executive power is exercised by the president, who is elected in direct elections for a five-year term. The president is the head of state, government and armed forces. The president appoints the prime minister and ministers. The Prime Minister is the Deputy President. Legislative power is vested in the parliament, which has 225 deputies for a five-year term. Check equzhou to learn more about Sri Lanka political system.

For decades, the party system was dominated by the socialist Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) and the conservative United National Party (UNP). The judiciary is independent of the executive and legislative branches. Sri Lanka’s politics reflect the historical and political differences between the three main ethnic groups, the Sinhalese majority and the Tamil and Muslim minorities, which are concentrated in the north and east of the island.

In the parliamentary elections held on 05/08/2020, the Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna Party (SLPP) led by Prime Minister Mahinda Rajapaksa secured a significant victory of almost two-thirds. His government was forced to resign after long-term anti-government protests and the poor economic situation in the country. Ranil Wickremesinghe assumed the role of Prime Minister on Thursday 12 May 2022, appointed by President Gotabaya Rajapaksa. Ranil Wickremesinghe is no newcomer to politics, having been the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka four times in the past.

The current political situation in the country is characterized by significant militarization of the country, restrictions on basic human rights, persecution of civil society and protectionist economic policies.

Foreign policy of the country

India is a key strategic and security partner for Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan government openly declares that Delhi is a priority for it in matters of security cooperation. India is Sri Lanka’s largest development partner. Relations are particularly strained by the Tamil minority, located in the north and east of the country. The Government of India is pushing for the implementation of the 13th Amendment of the Sri Lankan Constitution, including devolution, and for the speedy conduct of provincial elections. Another problem is alleged illegal fishing by Indian fishermen in Sri Lankan waters. Another burning point is the frequent favoring of China in the allocation of large economic projects at the expense of India. India has significant merit in economic aid to Sri Lanka, which has pledged more than USD 2 billion in humanitarian aid in the first quarter of 2022 alone. Check recipesinthebox for Sri Lanka defense and foreign policy.

The Chinese presence and its influence on the island is mainly represented by huge investments. However, their further influx is hampered by the prism of already high indebtedness to China and the imperative of strict prioritization of Sri Lankan interests. The current economic crisis in the country is blamed on China, which, according to the Sri Lankan media, knowingly helped Sri Lanka get into a debt trap.

Relations with the USA are not warm at all. The Sri Lankan side did not reflect the efforts of the US to avert economic cooperation with China. He emphasizes that the country is not ready to sacrifice the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state while maintaining foreign relations. The USD 480 million Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Agreement signed by the previous government in 2019 became problematic. The Sri Lankan government eventually decided not to sign the MCC with the US, saying that some of its features threatened Sri Lanka’s national security and social and economic well-being Cables.

Sri Lanka is strengthening relations with Bangladesh, with whom it is negotiating a Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The Prime Minister of Bangladesh has offered $200 million in humanitarian aid to Sri Lanka at a time of economic crisis.

The EU stood at a crossroads in relation to Sri Lanka in 2021. The problem is the country’s drift away from pro-Western values ​​and reluctance to implement the resolutions of the UN General Assembly resolutions regarding reconciliation, accountability and human rights in Sri Lanka. In 2021, the European Union continued financial assistance aimed at dealing with the consequences of the coronavirus epidemic


Number of inhabitants and population density:

About 22 million people live in Sri Lanka, the population density is 327 inhabitants/km2, the average annual increase is 0.67%.

Demographic composition: About 75% of the population is Sinhalese. The rest are Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils ​​(15.5%), Muslims (over 9%) and others.

Official Language: The official languages ​​are Sinhala and Tamil

Religion: Main religion: Buddhism (70.2%), Hinduism (12.6%), Islam (9.7%), Christianity (6.1%).