Spain Religion, Geography, Politics and Population

By | August 31, 2022

Religion in Spain

The state religion of Spain is Roman Catholic. About 99% of Spaniards are Catholics. 1% are Protestants, Muslims and Jews.

Transport in Spain

There is a subway in the capital of the country. It works from 6:30 to 1:30.

Bus service is well developed. Bus stops are marked with yellow-green signs with the word “bus”. They enter the bus from the front platform and call the driver the place to which they need to get. The driver issues a check with the fare indicated.

You can use a taxi. It is ordered from a cafe or from a hotel (in Spain it is not customary to drive around the city in search of passengers). Payment is made by meter. The fare within the resort is approximately 3-4 EUR.

There are rail links between major cities. From Barcelona and Valencia to the Balearic Islands ferries run. Ticket price 25-30 EUR, travel time 8 hours.

You can rent a car upon presentation of a credit card or an identity document and a driver’s license. The rates of Spanish car rental firms are usually lower than the rates set by international firms. The rental price ranges from 30-120 EUR per day. In Spain There are state (free), municipal (free) and motorway (toll) roads. The country has high fines for traffic violations. For driving without seat belts, as well as talking on a mobile phone while driving without a hands-free system, you will have to pay 300 euros, for driving without a driver’s license – 600 euros. A fine of up to 1.5 thousand euros and deprivation of a driver’s license for a long time is punishable by driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, as well as exceeding the speed limit by more than 50% of the speed limit allowed by law.

Plant and Animal World in Spain

Apart from the flora of the Canary Islands, about 8,000 species of plants grow in Spain, many of which are endemic, that is, growing only here. Only a small part of the once vast forests remained, mainly in the north of the country. In humid Spain, the forests are mostly broad-leaved (beech, elm, oak, chestnut, ash, linden, poplar), higher in the mountains, evergreen species appear (varieties of oak, pine, spruce), even higher the forests pass into alpine meadows.

The richest vegetation on the North Atlantic slopes of the Cantabrian mountains and the Galician massif – these areas are called “green” Spain. Evergreen shrubs and grasses grow on the plain of the Ebro River at the foot of the mountains, and semi-desert vegetation is also found with a predominance of wormwood and salt marshes. In “dry” Spain, Mediterranean vegetation prevails, evergreen shrubs – maquis, gariga and semi-shrubs – tomillars. Maquis includes myrtle, juniper, wild pistachio, cistus and low trees.

The fauna of Spain is very rich and diverse. In the north, the fauna is Central European: a lot of deer, roe deer, wild boars. In the mountainous regions, the red deer and the Pyrenean ibex have been preserved. Reindeer hunting is allowed. Sometimes in the Cantabrian mountains and the mountains of Leon there is a brown bear. Of the predators, quite a few wolves, foxes, and Spanish lynxes have survived at the mouth of the Guadalquivir.

Spain is considered the richest country in Europe in terms of the number of bird species found here. In the summer in Spain, you can see up to 25 species of birds of prey: hawks, eagles, griffins, falcons (the largest colony of black hawks in the Torrejon reservoir on the Tagus River). Many rare species only winter here, and it is best to observe them in early spring or late autumn. There are a lot of colonies of waterfowl: geese, ducks, herons, flamingos, white storks.

In Spain, there are also many types of reptiles: lizards, snakes, chameleons, and tarantulas and scorpions are found in the semi-deserts in the southeast of the country. A lot of fish is found in the mouths of rivers and in the Atlantic, mainly sardines, less – Baltic herring, cod, anchovies and various types of shellfish. The Mediterranean Sea is home to tuna, salmon, anchovies, crayfish and spiny lobsters.

Minerals in Spain

The bowels of Spain are distinguished by ore content and have large reserves of various ores. Mineral fuel reserves are relatively small. The main mineral deposits are located in the mountain systems surrounding Meseta and in the peripheral regions of the country. In the Cantabrian mountains are the main deposits of coal, iron ore and zinc. Sierra Morena contains the largest reserves of pyrites and polymetals. Significant reserves of iron ore and polymetals are also found in the Andalusian mountains. Deposits of tin, tungsten, uranium are located in the Galician mountains. At the junction of the Pyrenees and Catalan mountains with the Aragonese lowlands, deposits of lignites and potassium salt are concentrated.

Spain has large (up to 2 billion tons) reserves of high-quality iron ore with a metal content of up to 50%. The main deposits are located in the north of the country. Up to 20% of all iron ore reserves are in Asturias and Galicia. Large deposits of iron ore are found in the Andalusian mountains, north of Almeria.

In terms of copper pyrite reserves, Spain ranks first in Europe. The main deposits of Tarsis, Rio Tinto and Sarsa are located in the province of Huelva (Andalusia), in the Sierra Morena mountains between the Guadiana and Guadalquivir rivers. They were developed many centuries before our era. In Andalusia there are also significant reserves of non-ferrous metals, in the province of Jaen – deposits of lead-zinc ores (Linares, La Carolina). Zinc deposits are being developed in Santander on the Biscay coast (Reosin region). Tungsten ores are mined in Galicia. Manganese and tin are also found there. Uranium deposits have been discovered near the Portuguese border.

The main Almaden mercury deposit is located in the province of Ciudad Real (New Castile), at the junction of Meseta and Sierra Morena. The ore mined in Almaden contains up to 6-9% mercury. In Andalusia and Galicia there are deposits of platinum, gold and silver. Up to half of all coal reserves are in Asturias, the country’s main coal basin. In the northwest, in Leon, there are deposits of anthracite. The largest reserves of brown coal are located in the east of the country – the Utrillas region near Teruel. Shales are mined in Puertollano (Ciudad Real). In Catalonia (Suria region) there are large reserves of potash salts. Phosphorites are mined in Extremadura and sulfur in Albacete, asphalt in the upper reaches of the Ebro valley. Between 1952 and 1955 in the upper reaches of the Ebro, signs of oil were found at considerable depths. It is believed that there is oil in other areas, located on the slopes of the Pyrenees and on the Andalusian lowland. A methane deposit has been discovered in the province of Seville.

Banks in Spain

Numerous branches of banks exist in all cities. Currently, the strongest banking group is Banco de Bilbao y Vizcaya (BBV). Recently, however, it has a serious competitor to Central Hispano – a group formed as a result of the merger of two banks – Banco Central and Banco Hispano Americano. Despite the large number of local savings banks, they operate very slowly. In general, the Spanish banking system is quite heavily bureaucratized and does not particularly care about the convenience of customers.

Banks are open from Monday to Saturday from 9.00 to 16.30.

Political State in Spain

According to politicsezine, the form of government is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. The head of state is King Juan Carlos I. The supreme body of executive power is the government. Legislative functions and control over the activities of the government are carried out by the General Cortes (Parliament), consisting of two chambers – the Senate and the Congress of Deputies.

Population in Spain

The population of Spain, according to 2001 data, was 40,847 thousand people.

The Spaniards are recognized as a single nation formed on the basis of various ethnic groups, the main of which are Catalans (15.6%), Andalusians (15.6%), Castilians (11.1%), Valencians (9.7%), Galicians ( 7.4%) and Basques (5.6%).

Spanish (Castilian) is recognized as the official language. The Catalan language, which belongs to the Romance group and is closely related to French, is recognized as the second official language used in the media, and all business negotiations and office work are conducted in it. In some regions, Galician, Basque languages, local dialects are used. German, French, Italian are also used.

Population in Spain