In 1956 the first general political elections took place, with a direct and indirect system (this for the nomadic populations) but still limited to male voters, for the appointment of the Somali members of the first Legislative Assembly composed of 70 members (60 Somalis, 10 representing the other non-Somali ethnic communities, designated by the administrative authority), which replaced the Territorial Council. The Assembly was the indispensable preliminary organ for the creation, immediately afterwards, of an executive government formed by Somali, for the internal administration of the territory. In this way, part of the functions of the administrator as regards the legislative and executive power were taken over by the two new bodies. L’ The Assembly exercised its legislative competence in the matters proposed by the government and the laws voted by it were submitted to the administrator for the sanction. In the same year 1956, the police force took the name of “Police forces of Somalia” and also absorbed the Somali personnel of the “Security Corps)”, which was dissolved, while the territorial commands were entrusted exclusively to Somalis; the judicial organization received a new regulation, which established the Court of Justice as the supreme judicial body, and was definitively made independent from that of Italy; the territorial administrative districts were entirely entrusted to the direction of Somali. judicial organization received a new regulation, which established the Court of Justice as the supreme judicial body, and was definitively made independent from that of Italy; the territorial administrative districts were entirely entrusted to the direction of Somali. judicial organization received a new regulation, which established the Court of Justice as the supreme judicial body, and was definitively made independent from that of Italy; the territorial administrative districts were entirely entrusted to the direction of Somali. For Somalia 2014, please check thesciencetutor.org.
The most important political party, the “Lega dei Giovani Somali”, having had the majority in the Assembly and having therefore been called to hold government posts, went on to collaborate permanently with the Italian administration.
Women also took part in the new general political elections of March 1959; they were accompanied by conflicts and demonstrations against the government by some political parties, which did not agree to participate. The newly elected Legislative Assembly made a request, supported and presented by Italy and accepted by the UN General Assembly (5 December 1959), that the date of the independence of the Somalia be brought forward to 1 July 1960. By law of the April 6, 1960 the Somali National Army was created (at the head of which was a Somali commander). With another law of March 22, 1960, the Legislative Assembly was invested with the powers of constituent for the examination and issuing of the constitution of the next independent state. As a constituent the assembly was expanded with 20 members representing parties and organizations. The draft constitution, drawn up by the minister for the constitution and based on that already drawn up by a technical committee, was subjected to the examination and revision of a specific political committee (established in March 1960). Discussion of the project began on 23 May, the Constituent Assembly gave its final approval on the following 21 June.
The transitional provisions of the constitution provided that it would enter into force provisionally on 1 July 1960 and within one year from that date it would be subject to the definitive acceptance of the Somalis, who had become independent, by means of a plebiscite (referendum). The constitution is drafted according to the constitutional principles of modern democratic state structures. At zero o’clock on 1 July 1960 the Somalia became an independent Republic. The Somali Republic and the constitution of the Somalia it became its constitutional charter (see below).
During the ten years of fiduciary administration, the participation in the free political activity of opinion, in the European sense, by the Somalis took place through the political parties, gradually constituted, which programmatically proposed to give birth and form the conscience of national unity. among the people of the area, replacing the traditional sentiments of tribal and gentry solidarity. But the “Western” forms of association and political structure barely managed to hide, under new guise, those feelings, too deeply rooted and still vigorous. The largest and most dynamic party is that of the Somali Youth League), founded in 1943 and mainly spread among the people of the Dārṅd and Hawìye lineages in the center and north. Proponent of the meeting of all Somalis in a “big Somalia” independent (originally British), it opposed Italy’s return to Somalia. From 1954 he had a complete majority both in local administrations and, subsequently, in the Legislative Assembly and in the government; majority maintained then, constantly. Another significant political party is Ḥisb Datū ??? r Mustaq̄ìl Sōmali. namely the Independent Constitutional Party of the Somalia, whose members mostly belong to the Somalis Dìgil and Rahanweyn, that is to say to those people who are traditionally considered of inferior ethnic condition by the northern Somalis, Dārṅd and Hawìye, forming the backbone of the Somali Youth League. It has constantly opposed this. A recent party, with tendencies decidedly favorable to a pan-Islamic policy and adversary of the influence or preponderance of “Western” or democratic European countries, along the lines adopted by the government of Egypt in the years after 1954, is the Great Somalia League, founded in Mogadishu in 1958 by Ḥp̀ǧi Maḥàmet Ḥusỹn; the party violently opposed and opposed the Somali Youth League and, therefore, all government action in Somalia. Active in his propaganda, he is the only one who publishes his own newspapers (in Arabic and English) and mimeographed propaganda writings. Together with the Somali National Union (formerly the Benadir Youth Union), which follows its action, it did not participate in the 1959 elections.