Somalia Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Somalia Basic Information


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

Official name of the country : Somali Democratic Republic

President: Mohamed Abdullahi “Farmajo” Mohamed

Political tendencies : The federal government in Mogadishu presents itself as the legitimate, self-confident face of modern Somalia to the international community. The current President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed “Farmajo” has not managed, despite the unprecedented support of the whole world, to prepare for the first time in the history of the country elections where every person could cast his vote. The failure has several reasons – not only the influential Islamist movement al-Shabaab, which ensures security, the rule of law (Sharia) and lucrative investment opportunities in the territory under its control, but also the leaders of regional states, inter-clan rivalry and struggles for political-economic power over Mogadishu. As a result, presidential and parliamentary elections will take place indirectly. Clan leaders nominate electors who choose members of parliament. He will then choose the new president of Somalia. Endless discussions between the federal government and the regional states have resulted in the fact that the electorate has never met to form a parliament that would have time to elect a president before his mandate ends. The opposition refuses to extend Farmaj’s mandate. On the other hand, the speaker of the parliament rejects the opposition’s proposal that the country be temporarily led by the Provisional National Council, which would be headed by the presidents of both parliamentary chambers together with six regional presidents (de facto but only five, the sixth Somaliland wants nothing to do with federal institutions). Somalia thus entered 2022 without any plan or vision in what form the indirect elections would take place. Farmajo is able to effectively control an increasingly smaller area of ​​federal Somalia. The presidents of the states of Puntland and Jubbaland have no desire to participate in the joint building of strong federal institutions. Al-Shabaab still controls approximately 20-30% of rural areas in southern and central Somalia, particularly in Galmudug, Hirshabelle, South West and Jubbaland states. This is the recognition of a smaller territory than, for example, between 2007 and 2014, when al-Shabaab controlled up to 80% of Somalia’s territory. It should be noted that this is in no way the merit of the federal government and the capacities of the Somali armed forces, but of international efforts. Check cancermatters to learn more about Somalia political system.

Composition of the government:

Prime Minister – Mohamed Hussein Roble

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development – Said Hussein Iid

Ministry of Defense – Hassan Hussein Haji

Ministry of Education, Culture and Higher Education – Nuriya Adan Isse

Ministry of Energy and Water – Hassan Abdi Nur

Ministry of Finance – Abdirahman Duale Awad

Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Mohamed Abdirizak

Ministry of Information – Osman Abukar Dubbe

Ministry of Interior and Federal Affairs – Mukhtar Hussein Afrah

Ministry of Internal Security – Hassan Xundubey Jimcale

Ministry of Justice – Abdulkadir Mohamed Nur Jama

Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources – Abdirashid Mohamed Ahmed

Ministry of Planning and Economic Presentation – Jamal Mohamed Hassan

Foreign policy of the country

The main political-economic partners include Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar (supporting the government in Mogadishu) and the United Arab Emirates (cooperating with the government in Hargeisa). A deteriorating security situation, including clan violence and border disputes between federal states, still hinders the realization of the full potential of economic development. Massive investments are flowing from the Gulf countries, partly motivating ambitious Somalis of working age to stay and participate in the reconstruction of the country. Somalia increasingly listens to partners in the Middle East at the expense of the European Union, which represents Somalia’s largest development partner in the field of defense, state-building and its institutions, and the United States, which has built a number of military installations in the country. Check prozipcodes for Somalia defense and foreign policy.

China’s growing influence can be expected in Mogadishu due to the development of Somaliland-Taiwanese relations. Somaliland and Taiwan formally established diplomatic relations in 2020, with the opening of embassies in Hargeisa and Taipei during August and September. Relations with Kenya are at freezing point. The maritime border dispute and accusations that Kenya is interfering in Somalia’s internal affairs are to blame. In December 2020, diplomatic relations between Kenya and Somalia were severed after Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta welcomed Somaliland President Muse Bihi Abdi on a state visit to Nairobi. During the visit, the opening of a consulate in Hargeisa, the launch of a direct Nairobi-Hargeisa route and a number of lucrative business agreements were signed.


Population: World population review estimate for May 2022: 16,744,337

Average age: 18.1 years

Average annual increase: 2.91% (2022 World Population Review estimate), 8th highest annual increase in the world

Demographic composition: 50.2% women, 49.8% men

Ethnic composition: Somalis 85% (Daarood, Hawiye, Dir, Isaaq, Murile, Garre, Shiikhaal, Madhibaan, Yibro iyo Ciise Djibouti); Bantu and others (including 30,000 Arabs) 15%

Religious composition: Islam (99.8%), Christianity (0.1%)