Demography and economic geography. – East African state. For Somalia, the socio-economic estimates have little reliability, due to the extremely difficult internal situation. The calculation of population growth is made highly problematic by constant internal conflicts, displacements due to famine and widespread nomadism; there are an estimated one million refugees. Having made these clarifications, according to an estimate by UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), in 2014 the population reached 10,805,651 residents. Although the fertility rate is very high (6.1 children per woman), the incidence of infant mortality and emigration flows (S. is one of the countries in the world from which most emigrate) leads to a limited overall growth. The data on living conditions in Somalia are among the worst in the world: access to water and health care is difficult for two thirds of the population. Despite this, almost 40% of Somalis live in cities, among which Mogadishu stands out, with 901,200 residents. The country’s economic conditions are extremely difficult, mostly characterized by subsistence practices and illegal activities. It is estimated that 64% of Somalis are engaged in the primary sector, traditional livestock farming and fishing. There are few industrial and extractive activities, moreover reduced due to the continuing political instability.
Remittances from foreign emigrants ($ 1.6 billion) and international aid are essential to support the survival of Somalis. In fact, among the country’s resources there are piracy activities, which affect the Gulf of Aden. The phenomenon, however very complex, finds the support of the Somali coastal communities, which see their fishing resources being defrauded by the fishing boats of other countries. Thanks to the operations of NATO Ocean shield and EU NAVFOR (among the country’s resources there are piracy activities, which affect the Gulf of Aden. The phenomenon, however very complex, finds the support of the Somali coastal communities, which see their fishing resources being defrauded by the fishing boats of other countries. Thanks to the operations of NATO Ocean shield and EU NAVFOR (among the country’s resources there are piracy activities, which affect the Gulf of Aden. The phenomenon, however very complex, finds the support of the Somali coastal communities, which see their fishing resources being defrauded by the fishing boats of other countries. Thanks to the operations of NATO Ocean shield and EU NAVFOR (European Union NAVal FORce), among others, the number of attacks dropped from 151 in 2011 to just 9 in 2014. Piracy routes are consequently shifting to the Maldives and the Mozambican coast. For Somalia 2012, please check eningbo.info.
History – Starting from 2008, the joint work of internal political forces, international organizations and the main regional actors laid the foundations for the introduction of important changes in the situation of the country, where the lack of central power, in addition to favoring employment of the territory by the radical Islamist forces, thus destabilizing also the neighboring countries, had caused the spread of the most diverse forms of illegality, including piracy which, off the Somali coast, in 2007 and 2008 led to the seizure of numerous ships, mostly merchant ships, returned only after huge redemptions. In June 2008 in Djibouti, after months of talks, an agreement was first signed, under the aegis of the UN, between the more moderate Islamist wing, Alliance for the re-liberation of Somalia, ARS) and the transitional government. Secondly, in February 2007 the UN gave its authorization to the African Union mission, AMISOM (African Union Mission in Somalia). This mission would have enjoyed substantial financial, technical and logistical support from the European Union and the United States. The mission was mainly composed of green helmets from Uganda, Burundi and Djibouti and, since February 2012, from Kenya, which in 2011 had intervened autonomously in the southern Somalia to secure its borders; the Ethiopian troops instead began their withdrawal from the country in 2009. The strengthening of AMISOM marked a change in the strategy of the United States, which assumed a secluded and less visible role of intelligence and support for mission operations, and an active commitment to reconstruction of the Somali army. In June 2012, new talks opened in London, unrecognized states): talks that led, in August, to a new draft Constitution and the appointment of a new Parliament, thus ending the eight-year transition process. On 10 September the Parliament elected President of the Republic, by a large majority, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, an independent personality, an academic who has always been a civil rights activist.
Who controls Somalia
Although in Mogadishu, a city liberated in May 2012, just two days after his election, the president emerged unharmed from a suicide attack, the situation in the country had changed from a military point of view: AMISOM and the Somali army, in fact, had managed to wrest large parts of territory from the control of al-Shabaab troops, already weakened by the effects of the famine, which hit the Horn of Africa in 2010-11, and weakened by American drone attacks against their military leaders. At the end of September 2012, Chisimaio was reconquered, a large port and a key city for the supplies and trafficking of al-Shabaab.
Female soldier carries out a security check
These changes allowed a first attempt to restart the machine of the national economy, still largely based on remittances from abroad and international aid. Despite the progress, the situation remained difficult both because the government controlled mainly, and still not permanently, only the urban areas, remaining outside the rest of the country, largely desert and mountainous, and because the party of those ‘warlords’ who had ravaged Somalia for years. In the al-Shabaab movement, starting from 2009, the fundamentalist wing had meanwhile prevailed, which, led by Ahmed Abdi Godane, aspired to a stable alliance with al-Qā῾ida, which it affiliated definitively in 2012, even if this adhesion did not substantiate itself with a real capacity of integration with the other cells of the Qaidist jihadism. The radicalization of the movement had however determined a clear loss of consensus among the population due to the imposition of a rigorous vision of šarī ῾a marked by beheadings, floggings, stonings, for the fight against the brotherhoods that have for centuries been the bearers of a pragmatic and tolerant version of Sunni Islam, more inclined to solidarity than to politics (some sacred places of Sufism were destroyed) and finally to the refusal to accept food aid from international organizations during the famine, which in 2010-11 claimed thousands of lives.
The military defeat with the abandonment of the main cities marked a change in the strategy of the al-Shabaab who fragmented into small groups, withdrew into the countryside and concentrated their actions essentially in the terrorist attacks, carried out both in Somalia, in the areas controlled by AMISOM, both in the countries most involved in the UN contingent, such as Kenya hit in 2013 with an armed assault on a large shopping center in Nairobi, in which 68 people died. In early September 2014, a targeted drone strike killed Godane in a village in Lower Shabelle, as AMISOM troops encircled the city of Barawe, which was finally captured in October after it had become the stronghold of Islamist militias later. to the abandonment of Chisimaio.