Somalia 1949

By | December 15, 2021

After the Italian action in Ethiopia, Somalia was formed into one of the governments (see App. I, p. 62) of Italian East Africa (702,000 sq. Km., About 1,200,000 residents). This government included the ancient colony (506.573 sq. Km. Including the 90.000 sq. Km. Of Oltre Giuba, with 1.021.572 residents calculated in 1931) and also the Ogadēn region.

At the beginning of the Second World War, the Somali cities of Mogadishu, Merca, Brava and Chisimaio were connected to Italy by air services which covered the route in just over two days; the administrative situation was excellent and the health conditions greatly improved. In 1940, 8 hospitals and 30 outpatients operated in Somalia. Over 66,000 indigenous people were vaccinated between 1936 and 1940. The school and communications sector was also very well cared for, which saw the construction or reactivation of numerous roads and tracks alongside the Mogadishu-Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi railway (later demolished by the British military administration).

The economic sector, to which particular attention was paid, was that of breeding and agriculture; the serovaccinogenic institute of Merca mainly took care of the fight against rinderpest (in 1938-39 over 260,000 head of cattle were vaccinated and in 1939 deaths from the plague were reduced to only 53). Even better results were achieved in the agricultural field with the execution of important hydraulic works, especially along the Uebi Scebeli to make those areas more fertile and to constitute the basis of flourishing concessions, with Italian technical, capital and labor contributions. For Somalia 2007, please check extrareference.com.

Somalia is in fact an essentially agricultural country. The two major Italian agricultural initiatives are: that of the Duca degli Abruzzi Village for the cultivation (and industrial processing) of sugar cane and, subsidiary, of cotton and minor oilseeds; that of Genale for the cultivation of bananas and, subsidiary, of cotton, oilseeds and cereals. To these two major groups, both on the Uebi Scebeli river and irrigated crops (created ex novo with the deforestation of the land and the construction of dams on the river), a group of concessions on the Juba river was added – largely after 1937, which thus revived, with modern means and criteria, Italian companies already started there since 1908 Agricultural production had its main outlet in Italy; and for the transport and commercial placement of the tropical fruit of Somalia (especially bananas, 450,000 q. in 1937) the Banana monopoly company was born, which had built, in the Sestri and Monfalcone shipyards, its own flotilla of ships (Ramb I, II, III, etc.) equipped for the transport of fruit, and with its commercial organization in Italy (and in the neighboring countries of Europe) it ensured the sale of their production to Somali farmers.

Alongside this main agricultural activity, some notable industrial enterprises operated in Somalia, such as that of the Hafun salt pans, whose plant was completed by a cableway for loading salt on steamers; and some promising mining research had been done. On this complex of works in full development had, in fact, little influence the Italian annexation of Ethiopia, given the long and í ficult communications between Ethiopia and Somalia and character, completely different from the two countries.

After World War II broke out, Somalia was occupied by British troops.

The British crossed the border of Oltre Juba on January 22, 1941 shortly after starting the offensive on the Eritrean front. Contained in Beles Cogani in Afmedò and in the bush west of the river, while the Italian command decided and carried out the eviction of Chisimaio (February 14), an eccentric locality detached from the Italian resistance line, severely tested in Bulo Erillo (west of Gelib), crossed the Juba near the mouth between 17 and 18 February, and launched their mechanized vehicles towards Margherita, which advanced among the Italian units, mowing them down. The river then also passed to the north and the troops of the Gelib sector pressed from all sides, while the air force, completely undisturbed, gave no respite. On the 22nd morning the survivors of the area south-west of the town tried to gather in the the island of Alexandra, which Juba forms with one of its arms west of Gelib, in the hope of being able to resist again; but in the afternoon they were forced to surrender. The same sector command was captured. On the 24th the British troops were in Modun.

Any further resistance in Somalia was impossible; in such conditions the Italian superior command decided to evacuate them. After a brief resistance to Modun and Vittorio d’Africa, Mogadishu was occupied as a city opened on the 27th without incident. The survivors of lower Juba reached the Harar territory by Belet Uen, Gabredarre and Sassabaneh; the other Italians and a few indigenous people from middle Giuba reached, however, the Galla and Sidama for Dolo.

The events of the war and the British occupation with the expulsion of a large part of the Italians have seriously affected the situation in Somalia.

The colony is currently run by a British military administration, pending decisions on the country’s final fate. This long uncertainty, which lasted more than seven years, and the measures adopted for reasons of war (and then remained in force) have had an unfavorable repercussion on the economic conditions of the country. The main agricultural and industrial initiatives have suffered greatly. On 11 January 1948, when the Investigation Commission of the London Conference arrived in Mogadishu, there were serious incidents, with the barbaric massacre of 58 Italians. A special investigation ordered by the British government, to which an Italian consular official was admitted as an observer, examined the circumstances of the event. The new chief administrator, General Drew, appointed in April 1948,

There are no changes in the Somali population in the last decade; but Ogadēn was, after the British occupation of 1941, again separated from Somalia and administered by a British military government with its capital in Giggiga, as a “reserved territory”. In November 1948, there was mention of a new Anglo-Ethiopian agreement for the passage of the Ogadēn administration to Ethiopia. The Italian population in Somalia was 19,000. in 1939; but most of the Italians were interned in Kenya and Uganda during the war and removed from the territory, where they have so far been forbidden to return. Therefore today (December 1948) just over 3,000 Italians are present in Somalia.

British Somalia.

It counted 700,000 residents in 1946, of which 20-30,000 in the capital, Berbera. The conditions of the livestock are satisfactory, even if subject to diseases; it counts 2.5 million sheep and 2 million goats, 1.5 million camels. Trade in 1946 was £ 773,392 for imports and £ 318,886 for exports.

The Italian invasion of Somaliland during the Second World War began on the evening of August 3, 1940. The expeditionary force was made up of 26 battalions (of which 3 national) and 21 batteries (10 national) and was divided into three columns. 57 devices were placed at his disposal. A single truckable track leads from the Italian border to Hargheisa; here the track splits into two tributaries to Berbera, one for Adadleh (km. 168) and the other for Sheikh (km. 283); both are barred in the highest part (about 1500 qm) by solid semi-permanent works begun as early as 1936. In the first phase of the operations the three columns reached respectively and without encountering resistance: Zeila, Hargheisa and Oadueina. The opposing reaction turned out to be tenacious starting from 10 August when the central column came into contact with the fortified system. Only after five days of fierce struggle and with the help of the right column could it resume the advance and, after a new setback on the southern edge of the Lafaruk basin, reach Berbera on the 19th evening. The Italian losses totaled 2029 between dead, wounded and missing (161 nationals of which 62 are official). Somalia was reoccupied by the British in March 1941. wounded and missing (161 nationals including 62 officers). Somalia was reoccupied by the British in March 1941. wounded and missing (161 nationals including 62 officers). Somalia was reoccupied by the British in March 1941.

French Somalia.

Its population was 44,800 in 1946, of which 10,420 in Djibouti. Particular activity is that of the salt pans (42,650 tons of salt in 1944). Its trade was represented in 1946 by 216.9 million francs for imports and 38.8 million francs for exports. In 1938, the traffic through the AOI amounted to 521.6 million francs.

History. – The annexation of Ethiopia by Italy in 1936 had immediate repercussions in French Somalia: not only the import traffic increased so much that for several months, in 1937, there was a traffic jam in the port of Djibouti, but the change function of the French possession in relation to the Italian activity in East Africa gave rise to a series of agreements in the economic field to ensure effective collaboration. The political events that occurred changed this situation. This led to June 1940, and although no war operation had taken place between Ethiopia and French Somalia, the armistice of June 24, 1940, in articles 3, 5 and 9, set the conditions for the demilitarization of the colony, “keeping account of the particular importance of maintaining Later in the first months of 1945 the De Gaulle government sent Jacques de Blesson on a mission from Djibouti to Addis Ababa, who in June 1945 concluded an agreement for the resumption of diplomatic relations between France and Ethiopia. However, due to the ongoing disagreements for the Djibouti railway (and the related concession of the Compagnie du Chemin de Fer franco-éthiopien), Ethiopia refrained from appointing its own minister in Paris; until in September 1945 new agreements were signed for the return of the entire railway from French Somalia to Addis Ababa to the management of the aforementioned company. Thus the situation between Djibouti and Ethiopia returned to normal; trade with Ethiopia was gradually resumed. due to the ongoing divergences for the Djibouti railway (and the relative concession of the Compagnie du Chemin de Fer franco-éthiopien), Ethiopia refrained from appointing its minister in Paris; until in September 1945 new agreements were signed for the return of the entire railway from French Somalia to Addis Ababa to the management of the aforementioned company. Thus the situation between Djibouti and Ethiopia returned to normal; trade with Ethiopia was gradually resumed. due to the ongoing divergences for the Djibouti railway (and the relative concession of the Compagnie du Chemin de Fer franco-éthiopien), Ethiopia refrained from appointing its minister in Paris; until in September 1945 new agreements were signed for the return of the entire railway from French Somalia to Addis Ababa to the management of the aforementioned company. Thus the situation between Djibouti and Ethiopia returned to normal; trade with Ethiopia was gradually resumed.

French Somalia