Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Republic of Slovenia (Czech)
- Republic of Slovenija (Slovenian)
- Republic of Slovenia (English)
The composition of the government
- Prime Minister: Robert Golob (GS, Chairman)
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Tanja Fajon (SD, Chairperson), Deputy Prime Minister
- Minister of Labour, Family, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities: Luka Mesec (Levica, coordinator), Deputy Prime Minister
- Minister of Health: Danijel Bešič Loredan (GS), Deputy Prime Minister
- Minister of Defence: Marjan Šarec (LMŠ, chairman, nominated by GS)
- Minister of Finance: Klemen Boštjančič (GS)
- Minister of the Interior: Tatjana Bobnar (GS)
- Minister of Justice: Dominika Švarc Pipan (SD)
- Minister for Economic Development and Technology: Matjaž Han (SD)
- Minister of the Environment: Uroš Brežan (GS)
- Minister of Infrastructure: Bojan Kumer (GS)
- Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Food: Irena Šinko (GS)
- Minister for Public Administration: Sanja Ajanović Hovnik (GS)
- Minister of Education, Science and Sports: Igor Papič (GS)
- Minister of Culture: Asta Vrečko (Levica)
- Minister without portfolio responsible for EU development and cohesion policy: Aleksander Jevšek (SD)
- Minister without portfolio responsible for digitization: Emilija Stojmenova Duh (GS)
- Minister without portfolio responsible for Slovenians living abroad: Matej Archon (GS)
- GS = Gibanje Svoboda, the centre-left liberal Freedom Movement of Robert Golob
- SD = Social Democrats, the left-wing party of the Social Democrats
- Levica = the far-left party of the Left
- LMŠ = liberal Charter of Marjan Šarec
Slovenia is a parliamentary republic with a prominent role of the bicameral legislature. A proportional electoral system with a 4% entry clause generates a fragmented political system of multiple parties and broad coalition governments. As a result, governments are less stable and change frequently. Since the creation of independent Slovenia in 1991, there have already been 15 governments. With the exception of a few traditional political parties (e.g. the right-wing SDS, the left-wing Social Democrats), Slovenia is characterized by the frequent emergence of new parties, their mergers and divisions. On the contrary, a number of personalities remain in politics for a long time and have a strong influence on the political atmosphere in the country. The President speaks constructively and seeks consensus. Courts play a strong and active role, incl. Constitutional Court. Check computerminus to learn more about Slovenia political system.
The political environment is characterized by a strong polarization of left and right, ideological clashes and personal animosities of individual actors. Disputes of opinion have historical roots dating back to the Second World War. Polarization is also reflected in the functioning of the media and moods in society. Official government structures are complemented by wide networks of informal contacts and ties including business entities, the media and the cultural community. Civil society is active, many non-governmental organizations operate in Slovenia, demonstrations or public performances are organized. These events are usually peaceful.
Foreign policy of the country
Slovenia’s foreign policy adheres to value-based multilateralism based on crisis resolution through international organizations, law and justice. Slovenian foreign policy is defined in the Foreign Policy Strategy, the framework of which is perceived by political and diplomatic actors as very binding. Check relationshipsplus for Slovenia defense and foreign policy.
Slovenia is a member of NATO and the EU, the Schengen area and the monetary union, and it manifests itself as a pro-European state supporting the deepening of EU cooperation between member states and institutions and increasing their efficiency. Governments usually emphasize equality of access to member states, free discussion and the right of EU members to implement their own domestic policy. Slovenia supports a higher level of cohesion, more efficient use of structural funds and the creation of other instruments of European solidarity.
In the second half of 2021, Slovenia took over the EU presidency. His priorities included building resilience against epidemics and other threats of a global or pan-European dimension, restoring the economies of member states after the end of the new coronavirus pandemic with a focus on green transformation and digitization, expanding the EU to include the states of the Western Balkans, cyber security, the development of artificial intelligence and international development and investment projects focused on water resources. Slovenia also supports the fight against illegal migration and the reform of the European asylum system with the aim of simplifying the return policy and making cooperation between European agencies and member states more efficient.
Under the previous government, Slovenia focused on regional cooperation in Central Europe on a bilateral level and through individual platforms, such as the V4+, the Three Seas Initiative or the new C5 format of foreign ministers. There has been a gradual convergence of the positions and strategic interests of Slovenia with the states of Central Europe, including in the areas of nuclear energy, infrastructure, migration or EU budget issues. However, the new government of Robert Golob appointed in June 2022 signaled a departure from the regimes in Poland and Hungary.
The key topic of Slovenia’s foreign policy is the region of the Western Balkans. Slovenia supports the Europeanization of the region and draws attention to the risk resulting from the inaction of the EU and the interest of other great powers in increasing their influence in the region. Slovenian foreign policy emphasizes the demand for an accelerated start of the accession process of North Macedonia and Albania. Together with Croatia, they then continue the Brdo-Brijuni Initiative, which aims to support the states of the region on their way to the EU and in the implementation of political and economic reforms and the resolution of mutual disputes.
Slovenia is seeking to improve relations with the US, which were lukewarm under previous governments. In 2020, it then signed a memorandum on the deployment of 5G networks during a visit by the US Secretary of State. Due to the absence of a historical burden, Slovenia has good relations with the Russian Federation, although the previous government was significantly more critical of Russia. After the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Slovenia strongly condemned Russian aggression, supports sanctions against the Russian Federation and offers a system of comprehensive assistance to Ukrainian refugees. The new Slovenian government also condemned the Russian aggression, however, it emphasized the dialogue with the Russian Federation in the first place, without which it is impossible to achieve peace in Europe. She is also critical of the previous government for canceling Slovenia’s bilateral agreements with Russia, but at the same time expressed her approval of sanctions against Russia. The long-maintained purely commercial relationship with China has been replaced by a more balanced stance involving the issue of security and economic risks. Chinese firms were excluded from a number of tenders based on non-existent bilateral or multilateral agreements.
The Slovenian-Croatian territorial dispute over the Gulf of Piran and part of the land on the common border has not yet been resolved. Slovenia continues to demand the implementation of the 2017 decision of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, which Croatia does not recognize due to suspected manipulation. Bilateral negotiations are not very effective and there are regular incidents on both sides.
Composition of the population
Slovenia had a total of 2,107,180 inhabitants as of 1/1/2022. The population density reaches 10inhabitants/km2. The total population increase is 6.2% population/year.
The number of inhabitants aged 0-14 is 15.1%, 15-64 is 63.8%, and over 65 is 21.1%. The average age of the population is 4 years. During 2021, the share of foreigners in the population increased to 8.2%.
In the 2021 census, there were 859,782 households with an average size of 2.41 persons. At the same time, 587,448 families live in Slovenia, of which 70.2% have at least 1 child. The birth rate is children per mother. Life expectancy is 77.8 years for men and 8 years for women.
As part of the last census in 2002, 1,631,363 inhabitants (83.06%) applied for Slovenian nationality, the following are:
- Serbian – 38,964 (1.98%)
- Croats: 35,642 (1.81%)
- Bosnians: 21,542 (1.1%)
- Muslims: 10,467 (0.53%)
- Hungarians: 6,243 (0.32%)
- Albanians: 6,186 (0.31%)
- Macedonians: 3,972 (0.2%)
- Roma: 3,246 (0.17%)
- Montenegrins: 2,667 (0.14%)
- Italians: 2,258 (0.11%)
At that time, 273 persons claimed Czech nationality, 216 persons claimed Slovak nationality.
In 2002, the Roman Catholic confession was professed by 1,135,626 people, i.e. 57.8%, there are also 14,736 evangelicals (0.8%), 47,488 followers of Islam (2.4%) and 45,908 orthodox/orthodox Christians ( 2.3%). A total of 199,264 (10.1%) residents said they were atheists, 307,973 (15.7%) refused to answer the religion question, and 68,714 people (3.5%) said they were religious but did not identify with any the church. 28 people stated their Jewish nationality, and 99 of them declared themselves Judaism.
In Slovenia, there is a tolerant religious environment and a functioning separation of state and church, in the capital Ljubljana, in addition to Catholic and Protestant churches, there is also a mosque with a minaret, a synagogue and Orthodox churches. Church leaders are working together and have spoken out together during the COVID-19 pandemic. One Christian party is represented in the National Assembly – NSi, which won 7.13% of the vote and 7 out of 90 seats in the last elections. It is now part of the government coalition.