Slovakia Basic Information

By | July 21, 2022

Basic information about the territory

Slovakia Basic Information


  • System of governance and political tendencies in the country
  • Foreign policy of the country
  • Population

The system of governance and political tendencies in the country

The official name of the state is the Slovak Republic.

The head of state is the president, who is elected in direct elections by secret ballot for 5 years. The President can be elected for a maximum of two consecutive terms. The current president is Zuzana Čaputová , who took office on June 15, 2019. The president is the commander-in-chief of the Slovak Armed Forces. Zuzana Čaputová previously worked as a vice-president of the Progressive Slovakia party.

The political structure of SR is a parliamentary democracy. The only constitutional and legislative body of the Slovak Republic is the National Council of the Slovak Republic. It consists of 150 deputies who are elected for 4 years. The electoral district is the whole of Slovakia. Check computerminus to learn more about Slovakia political system.

The supreme body of executive power is the government of the Slovak Republic. It consists of the chairman, vice-chairmen and ministers.

The last parliamentary elections in Slovakia were held on February 29, 2020. Voter turnout reached 65.8%. Liberals and progressives (the Oľano movement and parties, Svoboda a Solidarita and For the People) were successful in the elections, which promote deeper EU integration and place great emphasis on transatlantic cooperation. The former long-time ruling party SMER – Social Democracy lost 11 mandates in the elections. The main reason for its defeat was the intense pre-election media coverage of the party as the cause of the corrupt environment in Slovakia. The murder of journalist Ján Kuciak and his fiancee in February 2018 was used by the then opposition to publicly pressure Prime Minister Robert Fico to resign in March 2018, as well as Minister of the Interior Robert Kaliňák and Police Chief Tibor Gašpar. Prime Minister Fico was replaced by Peter Pellegrini, which failed to prevent the electoral defeat of SMER – Social Democracy. After the elections, two of the three parties of the former government coalition – the Slovak National Party (Chairman Andrej Danko) and Most-Híd (Chairman Béla Bugár) did not get into parliament. The Progressive Slovakia party did not even get into the parliament.

Slovakia is now ruled by a coalition of four political parties and movements (Oľano, Sme rodina, Svoboda a solidarita, Za lúdí), which has a constitutional majority. The government’s priority is the fight against corruption. Some top civil servants, judges, prosecutors and former police presidents are being prosecuted. None of them have yet been legally convicted. Former police chief General Milan Lučanský allegedly committed suicide in custody.

The current Prime Minister of the Slovak government is Eduard Heger from April 1, 2021, who replaced Igor Matovič. The reasons for his dismissal were the solution to the covid pandemic and the purchase of Russian Sputnik V vaccines.

Composition of the government:

Eduard Heger (Oľano) – Prime Minister
Igor Matovič (Oľano) – Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance
Štefan Holý (We are Family) – Deputy Prime Minister
Richard Sulík (SaS) – Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy
Veronika Remišová (For the People) – Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of investments, regional development and informatization
Jaroslav Naď (Oľano) – Minister of Defense
Roman Mikulec (Oľano) – Minister of the Interior
Vladimír Lengvarský (Oľano) – Minister of Health
Samuel Vlčan (Oľano) – Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
Ján Budaj (Oľano) – Minister of the Environment
Natália Milanová (Oľano) – Minister of Culture
Andrej Doležal (We are a family) – Minister of Transport and Construction
Milan Krajniak (We are a family) – Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Family
Ivan Korčok (SaS) – Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Affairs
Branislav Grohling (SaS) – Minister of Education, Science, Research and Sport
Mária Kolíková (For the People) – Minister of Justice

Foreign policy of the country

The Slovak Republic (SR) has been one of the successor states of the former Czechoslovakia since January 1, 1993. SR is an independent, sovereign, democratic and legal state. The country’s foreign policy is Euro-Atlantic oriented. For the SR, there is no better alternative that would offer its citizens a higher level of prosperity, security and joint protection of shared values ​​while respecting and protecting individual human rights and fundamental freedoms. In foreign policy, the Slovak Republic promotes universal values ​​and principles such as freedom, pluralistic democracy, human rights and freedom, justice, human dignity, solidarity, market economy and peaceful coexistence of nations. The Slovak Republic fully respects and promotes compliance with international law and international order, which is based on the peaceful coexistence of nations, the peaceful resolution of disputes between nations. Check relationshipsplus for Slovakia defense and foreign policy.

The initial civilizational, value, geopolitical and strategic framework of the Slovak Republic is membership in the European Union and the North Atlantic Alliance (NATO). SR considers them the best guarantee for the defense, protection and promotion of the country’s foreign political and security interests. Integral to this anchoring is the belief that foreign policy begins in the neighborhood. The Slovak Republic wants to strengthen good relations in the immediate, but also in the wider European neighborhood. It intends to continue to develop above-standard relations with the Czech Republic, proven relations with Poland and Hungary, and an ever closer partnership with Austria. The strategic interest of the Slovak Republic remains a stable, democratic and prosperous Ukraine. The Slovak Republic will be involved in the international community’s efforts to resolve the conflict in Donbas peacefully and to restore the territorial integrity of Ukraine.

Vyšehrad cooperation (V4), which celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2021, remains an important format of regional cooperation. The main criterion for working in the V4 is taking into account the interests of Slovakia and contributing to common European solutions. SR wants to contribute as much as possible to improving the reputation of the V4 within the EU. In V4, it strives to strengthen cooperation in the field of connectivity, safety and security, civil society and interpersonal relations. The SR intends to develop cooperation within the framework of the Slavkov format (SR, Czech Republic and Austria). SR sees the EU agenda, infrastructure (transport, energy, digital), economic renewal and development cooperation as key areas of cooperation. Space for strengthening neighborly cooperation is also provided by the Three Seas Initiative,

Membership in the EU and NATO is a strategic interest of the Slovak Republic. It expresses the geopolitical anchoring of the country, multiplies its foreign political influence and is the most effective way of ensuring the prosperity and security of the Slovak Republic. An important part of this effort is the development of close bilateral cooperation, partnership and alliance with EU and NATO member countries. The Slovak Republic supports the development of the EU’s common foreign and security policy. At the same time, it supports the further development of strategic cooperation between the EU and NATO. The basic assumption from the perspective of the Slovak Republic is that the EU’s progress in the area of ​​security and defense should act synergistically with NATO’s actions while maintaining their complementarity and avoiding duplication and be an effective contribution to the overall strengthening of security in the Euro-Atlantic area. Stability in the Eastern and Southern European neighborhood is related to the security and prosperity of the Slovak Republic. According to the Slovak Republic, the EU should be actively present in both regions and should not allow the creation of a geopolitical vacuum. According to the Slovak Republic, ensuring respect for international law and stabilizing the security situation in the region is an urgent priority for the countries of the Eastern Partnership. The Slovak Republic’s foreign policy towards Russia is based on the search for the intersection of common interests and open dialogue even where values ​​and interests diverge. SR supports the integration of the countries of the Western Balkans into the EU. The long-term priority of Slovak foreign policy is the support of effective multilateralism, the basic pillar of which is the UN.


In 2021, a census of the population, houses and apartments was held in Slovakia.

It follows from the published results of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic that as of January 1, 2021, Slovakia had 5,459,781 inhabitants. Of the total population, 48.9% were men and 51.1% were women. Since the last population census in 2011, the population in the Slovak Republic has increased by 1%.

Ethnic composition of the population: Slovak (83.8%), Hungarian (7.75%), Roma (1.23%), Czech (0.53%), Ruthenian (0.4%). The shares of other nationalities are less than 0.2%.

The population density in Slovakia reaches 111.33 persons per 1 km2.

Share of the economically active population as of 2021 reached 2,748 million people, i.e. 50% of the total population. The number of workers was 2.531 million people and the number of unemployed was 181 thousand. persons. By age, the most employed were in the 35-44 age group (1.017 million persons) and the least employed were in the 15-24 age group (126 thousand persons). According to economic activities, the most employed persons were in construction (787 thousand persons) and in industry (55thousand persons).

About 120,000 worked abroad. Slovak citizens, of which the most are in Austria (30.4%), the Czech Republic (22.2%), Germany (19.6%) and Hungary (8%).

Religious composition of the population: Roman Catholic (55.8%), Evangelical (5.3%), Greek Catholic (4%). The second largest group are residents without a religious affiliation, almost million inhabitants (23.8%).