Sheep at the weekly market
The livestock consists primarily in cattle herds (Zebus) of the nomadic Peulhs (so-called. “Transhumants”) (Pular).
About 30% of the land area is designated pastureland, but the droughts of recent decades have had dire effects here too. Thousands of cattle perished in the 1970’s and many of the ranchers found themselves on the streets of Dakar. To this day, there have been repeated clashes between wandering ranchers and sedentary farmers.
The herds of cattle represent a not inconsiderable ecological problem, as they do not stop at protected forests and reserves in search of feed. Cattle for slaughter are usually sold at weekly markets; Until recently there was no way to sell the milk produced and the ranchers only produced it for their own use.
Some small private companies are now selling products local fresh milk and dairy products from Senegal, but it is difficult to compete in the market dominated by imported dry milk.
Fisherman’s beach in Ouakam
More than 600,000 people make a living from fishing. With more than 455,000 tons of catches per year, of which around 85,000 tons are exported and make up a third of the export volume, fishing is the largest source of foreign exchange in Senegal, one of 16 countries located in Western Africa according to mathgeneral. The main share is still generated by traditional fishermen (2008 the share was 87%). The West African coastal waters are favored by the Canary Islands and actually have great biodiversity and fish abundance, but biodiversity and fish stocks have declined sharply.
The EU is often blamed for emptying Senegalese fishing grounds and the depletion of fish stocks, but this is denied by the EU, which instead gives the ball back to the Senegalese government.
In any case, the fisheries agreement between the EU and Senegal has not been extended since July 2006.
Instead, the Senegalese state has issued individual licenses to foreign fishing fleets in recent years, which has repeatedly led to protests by local fishermen, civil society and organizations such as Greenpeace. One of the first acts of the new government was the revocation of these licenses.
Fish cart in St. Louis
Fish to dry in the sun
Fishing in the Sine Saloum Delta
On the Senegal River
Whoever is now responsible for the depletion of fish stocks, the fact is that traditional fishermen with their small wooden boats and archaic fishing methods are increasingly returning with half-empty boats. No wonder, then, that during the great illegal migration movement of 2006, when fishing boats left the Senegalese coasts, many of them seized the opportunity to secure their livelihood by selling their boats in one fell swoop.
Not only at sea, but also in the inland waters and the river mouths.
Industry and mining
View of cement works
The secondary sector generates around 20% of GDP.
The most important branches of industry include the processing industries: food (oil, fish, sugar, beverages) and textile and leather processing.
Calcium phosphate, which is extracted in open-cast mining, provides the basis for a relatively flourishing fertilizer industry. Limestone mining provides the basis for a modest local cement industry. The construction industry also occupies an important position with an average annual growth of 10%.
Geographically, the industrial sector is primarily concentrated in the greater Dakar area.
France is the first foreign direct investor in Senegal. The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs puts the number of French companies in Senegal at 300 (including around 130 branches of French companies) which provide over 16,000 jobs (20% of formal private sector jobs).
In recent years, had large state enterprises such as the crude oil processed SAR and the chemical industry ICS with which it however again since the consortium takeover uphill is temporarily struggling with enormous problems. Today, the ongoing bottlenecks in the electricity supply are a serious problem for industrial production, although an emergency supply plan has been showing an initial improvement since 2012.
The relatively young mining sector is still on the move and, due to limited natural resources, can only be expanded to a limited extent. In addition to phosphate, which has been mined for a long time (1.5% of world production), the focus is on mining the mineral deposits in the south-east of the country. But the spirit of optimism of the past decade has been dampened by the economic crisis and the withdrawal of foreign investors. Gold has been mined professionally
in the Kédougou region by Mineral Deposits Limited (MDL) since June 2009. Reason to cheer for ex-President Wade, reason to complain about the lack of compensation for the expropriation of the rural population, environmental problems and corruption in the mining region.
In the context of gold discoveries in the east, informal gold prospecting is also increasing, with the typical conflicts and health risks.
In October 2014, significant offshore oil deposits were discovered off the coast of the greater Dakar area and the profitability of the production appears assured. An oil bonanza with the mistakes of the other oil-producing African countries should be avoided.