Scotland Geography

By | October 19, 2021

Scotland – key data

Land Area: 78,772 sq km

Population: 5.2 million (2008 estimate). Composition: bulkheads 88%,English people 8%, Irish, Welsh and others 4%.

Ethnic groups: Whites 97.99%, South Asians 1.09%, Blacks 0.16%, multiracial 0.25%, Chinese, 0.32%, others 0.19% (2001 census).

Population density: 64 residents per square kilometer

Capital: Edinburgh (463,510 residents, 2006)

Highest point: Ben Nevis, 1,344 m

Lowest point: Atlantic Ocean, 0 m

Form of government: England is a constitutional-parliamentary monarchy and a part of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom, UK). The Scottish Parliament (129 members elected every 4 years) has been responsible for most aspects of domestic affairs since May 12, 1999. In addition to the Scottish Parliament, legislative power continues to be exercised by the Parliament of the United Kingdom in London. This can also overrule decisions made by the Scottish Parliament.

Administrative division: 32 Unitary Authorities, including 3 island districts: City of Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire, Angus, Argyll and Bute, Clackmannanshire, Dumfries and Galloway, City of Dundee, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Lothian, East Renfrewshire, City of Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fife, City of Glasgow, Highland, Inverclyde, Midlothian, Moray, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, Perth and Kinross, Renfrewshire, Scottish Borders, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, Stirling, West Dunbartonshire and West Lothian. Island boroughs: Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands and Na h-Eileanan Siar (Western Isles).

Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II (since February 6, 1952)

Head of Government: Prime Minister Alex Salmond (since May 16, 2007)

Language: the main languages ​​are Scottish English, Scots (30% of the population can speak Scots) and Scottish Gaelic (1% of the population).

R eligion: Church of Scotland (42.4%), Roman Catholic (15.9%), other Christians (6.8%), Islam (0.8%), Other (including Buddhism and Hinduism) 0.9 %, no religion 27.5%, no information 5.5% (2001 census).

Local time: CET -1 h. Daylight saving time (CET) is in place in Scotland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October.
The time difference to Central Europe is -1 hour in both winter and summer.

International phone code: +44


Mains voltage: 240 V, 50 Hz

Scotland occupies about a third of the United Kingdom and Great Britain with a total area of ​​78,783 square feet Northern Irelanda, which corresponds roughly to the size of Austria or Bavaria. The borders around Scotland form the North Sea in the east, the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Cheviot Hills and the Tweed to England in the south. 790 islands also belong to Scotland, only 130 of which are inhabited. The biggest Scottish Archipelagos are the Orkneys and Shetlands in the north and the Hebrides in the west.

According to relationshipsplus, Scotland consists almost entirely of mountains, hills and lochs, all of which owe their formation to the last ice age, which ended about 10,000 years ago. If you look at the north-south extension of 440 kilometers and that from east to west with about 250 kilometers, the total length of the coast, including the islands, at 10,140 kilometers appears to be quite considerable; a phenomenon that can be traced back to the multitude of Scottish bays and fjords.

The northernmost part of Great Britain is divided into three geographic regions: The region of the Southern Uplands whose graceful mountains stretch across the border with England, the so-called Borders Region, to the Dumfries and Galloway areas. This is followed by the Central Scottish Plain, which runs between the Firth of Clyde on the Atlantic Ocean and the Firth of Forth on the North Sea, and finally the Scottish Highlands, which includes the Highlands and the Grampians as well as the island groups of the Hebrides, Orkneys and Shetlands.

Most of Scotland consists of mountainous highlands which, on the one hand, because of its barren soil and, on the other hand, because of its altitude, does not allow any agricultural use. The highlands in the north-west, which lies on the other side of the almost 100 kilometers long Caledonian Trench, initially shows pure gneiss rock, to which sandstone is deposited on the west coast and mica schist in the direction of the Caledonian Trench. The strong winds and storms have contributed to tremendous erosion since the formation of the highlands, which are also the cause of the valleys running from east to west, which ultimately run into the Atlantic in long bays, the “Firths”. Nowhere else in Scotland than in the highlands do you find the mountains called “Munro” by the Scots, which are allowed to bear this name from an altitude of 3,000 English feet (914 meters). The Ben Nevis At 1,344 meters, it is not only the “King of the Munros”, but also the highest mountain in Great Britain. This part of Scotland is the least populated region because of its rugged and economically undeveloped mountains, but the towering peaks and beautiful lochs draw many visitors to the Highlands, which are the epitome of the Scottish landscape.

On the eastern side of the Caledonian Rift, the Grampians extend, which, like the Harz and the Black Forest, consist of mica schist and granite. The subsequent Central Belt, as the central Scottish lowlands are called, has rich mineral resources of coal, ore and lime as well as fertile arable land. In the most densely populated part Scotland is also home to the country’s largest cities. The southern hill country, the Southern Uplands, close the land towards England with fertile depressions that are used for intensive agriculture.

Scotland Geography