Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The Republic of San Marino is a parliamentary democracy and probably the oldest republic in the world. The process of San Marino’s independence gradually developed throughout the early Middle Ages (the basis was the activity of local families who were freeing themselves from legal, ecclesiastical and political dependence). The first foundations of its own state date back to 1263, in 1600 San Marino adopted one of the world’s oldest constitutions. The structure of state, legislative and judicial bodies is a reflection of historical development, and elements of centralization of power in the hands of the collective head of state (two captains – regents) formally persist. The State Congress (Government) is the highest body of executive power and is composed of 10 members, elected from the deputies of the Great General Council. The legislative Grand General Council is a unicameral parliament composed of 60 deputies (councils). The head of state is collective. Two Captain-Regents are appointed by the Grand General Council twice a year (in March and September), taking office on April 1 and October 1. Currently, they are Oscar Mina and Paolo Rondelli for the period from April 1 to October 1, 2022. Parliamentary elections were held in San Marino in December 2019. They were won by the San Marino Christian Democratic Party (Partito Democratico Sanmarinese), which won over 33% of the vote, which guaranteed it 21 seats in the Grand General Council. A majority government coalition was formed, which consists of the San Marino Christian Democratic Party (21 MPs and 5 ministers), the RETE Civic Movement (11 MPs and 2 ministers), We for the Republic (8 MPs and 2 ministers), Zítra – the Freedom Movement (4 MPs and 1 minister). In the government program, the greatest attention is focused primarily on the domestic economy (the need for effective fiscal measures, steps to stabilize public finances, a national strategy for better functioning of the financial sector, repayment of the national debt, rationalization of the labor market and reform of the social security system). The government continues negotiations with the EU on the association agreement, as it considers it a strategic factor for the country’s development. At the same time, it adopts international norms and standards in order to strengthen cooperation in the fight against terrorism, corruption and discrimination. because he considers it a strategic factor for the country’s development. At the same time, it adopts international norms and standards in order to strengthen cooperation in the fight against terrorism, corruption and discrimination. because he considers it a strategic factor for the country’s development. At the same time, it adopts international norms and standards in order to strengthen cooperation in the fight against terrorism, corruption and discrimination. Check computerminus to learn more about San Marino political system.
Foreign policy of the country
The basic officially declared principle of San Marino’s foreign policy is neutrality (since October 1944). Compared to larger states, San Marino’s foreign orientation is influenced by several factors. This is mainly an effort to preserve all the basic elements of state sovereignty despite the minimal area and low number of inhabitants (33,716 as of April 2022) and the resulting different composition of foreign policy needs. The priority is relations with Italy, overall integration into the EU in the sense of negotiating the Association Agreement and activity in international organizations. The focus on international organizations began in the 1990s (membership in the UN from 2 March 1992, agreement on cooperation and customs union with the EU from 17 December 1992). In international organizations of a financial and economic nature, San Marino is proactive, especially in the field of aid to the poorest developing countries. Check relationshipsplus for San Marino defense and foreign policy.
The geographical location of San Marino makes Italy the most important foreign partner. Relations are regulated by the Treaty (of Friendship and Good Neighbourhood) of 1939, which is still considered the framework treaty instrument, although it has been amended by a number of other treaties. Relations with Italy are followed by a connection to the EU, enshrined in the Treaty on Economic Cooperation and the Customs Union. From a customs point of view, the territory of San Marino is considered the territory of the Italian Republic. Agreement on a customs union between San Marino and Italy, or The EU meant the elimination of customs duties, the prohibition of the imposition of taxes that have a similar effect to tariffs, the prohibition of the introduction of quotas and quantitative restrictions. A monetary agreement between San Marino and Italy was concluded in 1991. Since 2002, based on the Agreement on Monetary Union with Italy, the currency has been the euro. San Marino allocated an annual quota of 1,944. 000 € (as part of the Italian quota) to mint its own euro coins. On March 27, 2012, another monetary agreement was signed between the RSM and the EU. An important aspect of San Marino’s foreign trade policy is the regulation of the internal tax area. To this end, San Marino concludes double taxation treaties.
On January 27, 2021, the Treaty between the Czech Republic and the Republic of San Marino on the prevention of double taxation in the field of income and property taxes and on the prevention of tax evasion and tax avoidance was signed in Rome at the Embassy of the Republic of San Marino in the Republic of Italy. The Treaty was signed on behalf of the Czech Republic by the Ambassador to the Republic of San Marino, Václav Kolaja, and on behalf of the San Marino side, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, International Economic Cooperation and Telecommunications, Luca Beccari. RSM ratified the agreement on 15 September 2021, ratification by the Czech side is expected in 2022.
According to official data from April 2022, San Marino has a total of 33,716 resident inhabitants. Another almost 20,000 San Marinos live abroad. The Roman Catholic faith prevails (97%).