Romanian Arts

By | November 21, 2021

Romanian art, the art on the territory of Romania. Among the artistic landscapes of today’s Romania, due to historical development, Moldova (now Moldova) and Wallachia are those that represent Romanian art most purely. Transylvania was in lively contact with Central Europe as early as the Middle Ages, while the other two regions only took up elements of Western art in sporadic places and only increasingly in the 18th century.

  • Romania is a country starting with R. Check COUNTRYAAH to find other countries that also begin with letter R.

Architecture: Remains of Greek (Histria, Callatis, Tomis) and Roman (Province of Dacia, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica) settlements have been preserved from antiquity. In the 4th-6th In the 16th century, Byzantine art (especially basilicas, e.g. Noviodunum, 5th / 6th century) began to flourish in Dobruja, which put an end to the Avar invasion around 600. Since the 10th century, Transylvania has been a part of the Hungarian kingdom with a different artistic development. In Wallachia and Moldova, wood and earth structures dominated until the 13th century (Basarabi cave complex in Dobrudscha, beginning of the 9th century), while stone structures were the exception (Orthodox church in C ǎlan, a hall building, mid-12th century; Chapel in the prince’s court in Curtea de Argeș, early 13th century). From the 14th century, the architecture was increasingly under Byzantine influence, which was largely conveyed via the Athos monasteries or Serbia, western and central European motifs, as they were typical for the Gothic development there, appeared less often. Wallachia initially continued the type of the Byzantine cross-domed church (princely church in Curtea de Argeș, mid-14th century), then took over the three-cornered building of the Serbian Morawa school, which originated from Athos, with a dome on a high drum and mostly single-nave and barrel-vaulted lay room. The monastery church of Cozia (1382–88) was trend-setting for this type. In the 14th and 15th centuries, construction activity was concentratedǎ gurele, before 1393; Giurgiu, before 1403).

At the episcopal church in Curtea de Argeș (consecrated in 1517), national special trains v. a. the tower-like drum domes, inclined drum windows and a rich architectural sculpture with local, Armenian and oriental decorative motifs. In the 16th century, numerous monasteries were built based on the model of the Athos monasteries (Snagov Monastery, around 1517–21) due to particularly lively interrelationships. While the cubic character of the Byzantine basic type is preserved in Wallachia, the same type in Moldavia, especially in Bukovina, is closer to the Gothic in the west. The strongly stretched structure is covered by a uniform gable roof from which the drum dome protrudes like a tower. Support pillars, window and door frames were taken directly from the Gothic (Voroneț monastery churches, 1488; Moldovița, 1532; Sucevița, around 1582–86; Dragomirna, mentioned 1609); in the 16th century the profiles were replaced by renaissance shapes.

Probably based on the wooden architecture, a peculiar construction for domes with two or more stacked pendentives was developed in the Moldau, which increasingly reduce the dome diameter (Church of the Holy Cross in Pătrăuți, Suceava district, 1487). These “Moldavian vaults” can be traced back to the 18th century. In the 17th century, the exterior was often covered with rich ornamentation (Church of the Three Hierarchs in Iași, consecrated 1639). At the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries, the Brâncoveanus style shaped the castle and monastery complexes of Wallachia (St. Nicholas Church in Fogarasch, 1698; Monastery Sîmb ǎta de Sus near Fogarasch, late 17th century). In the 18th century, the European baroque (castle in Gornesți, 1773–80) and later, v. a. Mediated by Russia and Poland, Classicism (Ghika Castle in Bucharest, 1822) entered Romanian architecture. In the 19th century there was gradually a closer connection to the European development with historicist buildings such as the Athenaeum in Bucharest (1886-88), the former Palace of Justice (today university building, 1890) by Ion I. Socolescu (* 1859, † 1924) in Craiova, the Palace of Culture in Iași (1905-07) by Ion D. Berindey (* 1871, † 1928) and the casino in Constanța (1907-10) in the Art Nouveau style.

Ghica-Budesți, Ion Mincu (* 1851, † 1912), Grigore Cerchez (* 1851, † 1927) and Petre Antonescu (* 1873, † 1965) built on the national tradition (»Romanian style«: Villa Lahovary, 1886, and Buffet, 1889–92, both in Bucharest) and opened the way to modern Romanian architecture. Using the methods of modern industrial construction, among others out Cezar Lăzărescu (* 1923, † 1986), for example. B. with residential and administrative buildings in Bucharest (including Otopeni airport building, 1972), and Nicolae Porumbescu (* 1919, † 1999) who built the state circus in Bucharest in shell construction (1960). The first approaches to planning new architecture within the framework of larger urban development concepts appeared in Bucharest (international architecture competition “Bucharest 2,000”) and in Timişoara, where the Prodid office founded in 1991 (Serban Sturza, * 1947, Doina Sturza and Radu Mihailescu, * 1959) as well as Ioan Andrescu (* 1960) and Vlad Gaivoronschi (* 1960) attracted attention.

Painting and sculpture: Wall and icon painting are sustainably committed to the Byzantine tradition and took on Serbian influences in particular (frescoes of the princely church of Curtea de Argeș, 1351 ff.). In the 15th century, the artistic influence of the Athos monasteries and the Byzantine-Hellenistic tradition, among others. readable from the miniature painting (Tetraevangeliar of Nicodim, 1453, Putna, Monastery Museum; Tetraevangeliar of the monk Gavril Uric, 1429, Oxford, Bodleian Library). In the 16th century, an iconographic system of its own developed that also referred to contemporary issues. Significant is the tendency towards humanization and closer to reality (influence of the occidental renaissance). From around 1530, not only the interior but also the exterior walls of Moldovan churches were covered with frescoes (Humor, around 1535; Moldovița, 1537; Voroneț, 1530-47). In Wallachia in particular, popular icon art flourished in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Brǎ ncoveanustil was also reflected in wall painting (Hurezi, 1692–1702; Filipeşti de P ǎ dure, 1692; Church of the Arnota Monastery, 1644). The Europeanization of painting and sculpture began in the 19th century. In history, portrait, genre and landscape painting, the artists focused on social issues in which humans played an important role (peasant and village world). The leading painters of the 19th century in France received decisive suggestions (T. Aman, I. Andreescu, N. Grigorescu, Ș. Luchian), as did the representatives of modern Romanian painting and graphics of the 20th century: Gheorghe Petraşcu (* 1872, † 1949), Theodor Pallady (* 1871, † 1956), H. Mattis-Teutsch, I. Iser, N. Tonitza, D. Ghiață. In the 1920s, the artistic avant-garde reached a high point with the international exhibition in Bucharest in 1924. Numerous groups of artists called for the creation of their own national art in manifestos, among them the »Group of Four« (1926–34, founded by N. Tonitza; Francisc Șirato, * 1877, † 1953; Ștefan Dimitrescu, * 1886, † 1933; and the sculptor Oscar Han, * 1891, † 1976) stands out with her exhibitions. For V. Brauner, who moved to Paris in 1930, and for Max Herman Maxy (* 1895, † 1971) and Marcel Iancu (* 1895, † 1984), surrealism became important. Important sculptors are the German-born Karl Storck (* 1826, † 1887), Stefan Ionescu-Valbudea (* 1856, † 1890), the classicism-inclined Ion Georgescu (* 1856, † 1898), the D. Rodininfluenced by D. Paciurea and C. Brancusi, who settled in Paris in 1904 and achieved international renown with abstract sculptures. Artists like Mihai Buculei (* 1946), Horea Flamandu (* 1941) and Ovidiu Maitec (* 1925, † 2007) later followed up on Brancusi’s art with their sculptural work. The works, which can be assigned to socialist realism (since 1948), show strong expressionist traits. Other artists oriented themselves towards medieval painting, which they reshaped in the contemporary sense (including Virgil Alm ǎ șanu, * 1926, † 2009) or represented a more popular direction (including Viorel M ǎ rginean, * 1933). In the context of various oppositional artist groups, new approaches to Romanian art have been sought since the end of the 1970s, dealing with current western art trends (including Alexandru Chiru, * 1947; Marilena Preda Sanc, * 1945; Doru Covrig, * 1942). Țeodor Graur (* 1953), Iosif Kiraly (* 1957), Dan Mihălțianu (* 1954), Dan Perjovschi (* 1961) belong to the group of artists who came up with forms analogous to the art of Western Europe in their paintings, sculptures, photographs and installations ) and Aurel Vlad (* 1954). Kiraly and Mihălțianu founded the influential group »SubReal« in 1990 together with the art critic Călin Dan. Artists of Hungarian descent play a special role within Romanian art, especially the action and land art artists now living in Budapest András Butak (* 1948), László József Molnár (* 1951) and Károly Elekes (* 1951).

Romanian Arts