It should be noted that at the beginning of the Middle Ages a part of the Romanian territory was included in different cultural areas and also – in the case of Dobruja, Banat and Transylvania – subjected to the authority of different states, in this specific case the Byzantine Empire and the kingdom The treasure of Nagyszentmiklós (see Romanian Sînnicolau Mare) is very significant in defining the stylistic climate of the time, today in Vienna (Kunsthistorisches Mus., Schatzkammer), of the century. 10 °, an authentic synthesis of the different currents that, around the year 1000, crossed paths in the sumptuary arts of Eastern Europe and above all of the Balkan peninsula, starting from the Roman-Byzantine base to reach the post-Sassanid, Caucasian and Islamic influences. In direct relationship with this treasure are the Orthodox and Catholic monuments of Transylvania from the year 1000, when the suggestive stone sarcophagus was built (Cenad, Roman-Catholic church) believed to be of the Venetian Gerardo de Sagredo, the first bishop of ancient Morisena urbs (region of Mureş). The churches of Dăbâca, the rotunda and the two basilicas, previous to the current cathedral of the century. 13 °, of Alba Iulia (v.) – stone monuments of the nascent feudal centers of Transylvania of the secc. 10th-12th – seem to be connected with the particular stylistic aspect of the interference between the Byzantine-Balkan ecclesiastical architecture and that of Central and Western Europe, in the first phase of the appearance of the Romanesque style, to which some archaic sculptures are also linked of the portals, capitals and corbels of Alba Iulia dating back to the early 12th century.This was the time when the fiefdoms of Transylvania and the Arpadi dynasty (v.) established political and ecclesiastical contacts with Constantinople and the West, at a time when there are no too marked differences, neither from the point of view of the organization of the liturgical space nor from the artistic one, between the Byzantine and Western monuments. Nonetheless, after 1100, the new political and ecclesiastical structures of the Voivodeship of Transylvania, the definitive triumph of the Roman Church, the presence of external ethnic groups, primarily of Germanic origin (Saxons), ended up determining in an ever clearer way a panorama of provincial Romanesque and Gothic art, in relation to Austria, Hungary, Bohemia and Slovakia. 13 °, before and after the Mongol invasion, stone basilicas with three naves appeared in Cisnădioara and Drăuşeni, close to those of the Rhenish region from which the first German colonizers (flandrenses) came, while the brick architecture it was specific to the Banat region (Cistercian monastery of Igriş, burials of Andrew II, king of Hungary, d. in 1235, and of Iolanda di Courtenay, d. in 1233) and the region of Someş-Bihor (Acâş, Herina). For Romania 2015, please check dentistrymyth.com.
A very significant monument of the Romanesque period – but rather isolated – is the great basilica of S. Michele di Alba Iulia, built between 1247 and 1291, in which the Lorraine stonecutter Jean de Saint-Dié was also active. around the middle of the century. 13 °, in the Cistercian monastery of Cîrţa, the Gothic forms and structures spread rapidly, while retaining a strong Romanesque imprint (churches of Bartolomeu and the fortress of Prejmer). Later, during the centuries. 14th and 15th, in the centers that enjoyed the status of civitates, flourishing at the time of the Angevin dynasty, under the emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg (1411-1437) and the king of Hungary Matthias I Corvinus (1458-1490) the Gothic cathedrals of Sibiu, Braşov, Sebeş, Cluj, Mediaş, Sighişoara were erected (all variously remodeled in the following centuries), reaching the forms of the flamboyant style and the structures of the ‘a hall ‘, linked to the art of southern Germany, Prague, Košice and Vienna.In this artistic panorama, aspects of particular importance are represented by the story of two sculptors of Transylvanian origin, Martin and George of Cluj, authors in 1373 of statue of St. George slaying the dragon in the third courtyard of the Prague castle, a work that already announces the sculpture of the external spaces of the Renaissance; from the painting of altar polyptychs (Thomas of Cluj, altars of the churches of Biertan and Mediaş); from the monumental cycles painted in the churches of Homorod, of Mălâncrav and Mediaş; or even from the military architecture of the castle of Hunedoara, built by feudal lords of Romanian origin.On the other hand, the Romanian Orthodox feudality had already supported economically, under the last Arpadi and also later, in the regions of Haţeg and Maramureş, a sacred art linked to both the European Gothic and the Byzantine art of the Palaeological era, through the Wallachian and Moldavian monuments of the time (churches of Densuş, Strei, Sântămărie Orlea, Cuhea). another Romanian area that experienced some significant artistic achievements, the Dobruja, the Byzantine conquest of the end of the century. 10 ° led to the construction of mighty stone fortresses (Păcuiul lui Soare), of monastic religious buildings and oratories for the needs of a clergy that depended on Dorostolon, Ochrida and Constantinople. Among the ecclesiastical buildings belonging to the first category, which testify to the level of civilization of Dobruja and in which are found the artistic echoes of the Byzantine world, the region of the steppes and Asia Minor, the Balkans and even the Viking North, are the monuments rock of Basarabi-Murfatlar (10th century) – which bear inscriptions, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic images engraved in the limestone walls of a hill near Constance – as well as the remains of a church in Niculiţel (12th century), built according to the trilobate structure characteristic of post-iconoclastic missionary monasticism, from Macedonia to Serbia, Bulgaria, to Wallachia and Moldavia.