Romania Medieval Arts Part I

By | December 23, 2021

Eastern European state that occupies the region to the North of the lower Danube and whose territory is divided, from an orographic point of view, into a central mountainous and hilly core, consisting of the circle of the Carpathian mountains and the heights of Transylvania, surrounded to the W and E by two flat areas, respectively the one opening towards the Hungarian plain and the one facing the Black Sea, crossed by the last stretch of the Danube and its deep delta. years that separate the end of the century. 4 ° from the beginning of the 14th, when the Romanian states (Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia) were established on both sides of the Carpathians and the main artistic monuments present on the territory of the od. Romania. For Romania 1998, please check constructmaterials.com.

These monuments are the expression of a ‘courtly’ culture and a ‘popular’ culture, as they are reflected in architecture, sculpture, fine silver processing, ceramics and, at a later stage, in painting and art of embroidery. Romanian art highlights the capacity for synthesis and adaptation that the local environment demonstrated in relation to the influences exerted both by the nearby areas and by more distant cultures (Byzantine-Balkan, Slavic, Germanic, Turanic, Romanesque-Gothic). 5th-8th the Carpathian-Danubian territories – like all the border areas between the Byzantine Empire and the variegated barbarian world – had the uncertain status of regions in which migrating peoples exercised from time to time a temporary domination, while some areas of the lower course of the Danube temporarily entered the sphere of control of the Constantinopolitan administration. 5th-6th to offer the most eloquent evidence of the persistence of an architectural and sculptural tradition that had its roots in Greco-Roman paganism, at the time of the triumph of the Christian Church, a triumph that found expression in the region between the Danube and the sea. Nero, in a series of buildings: funeral monuments (Niculiţel) and basilicas destined for worship (Adamclisi, Istria, Costanza, Mangalia, Isaccea, Igliţa, Slava Rusă), some of which recall the architecture of Constantinople, Macedonia, Greek archipelago and Asia Minor. Architectural sculpture is represented in the Roman-Byzantine Dobruja by funerary slabs on which Christian symbols are carved, by some fragments of choral fences and above all by splendid capitals such as those of Mangalia (Bucharest, Muz. Naţional de Istorie al României), decorated with leaves acanthus, eagles and rams’ heads, in very elaborate compositions that suggest similar examples from the Byzantine area. The highly standardized ceramics and the art of metals – evidenced by some jewels discovered in Istria (Bucharest, Muz. Naţional de Istorie al României), in which we find analogies with examples of Constantinopolitan and Syrian origin – complete the image of art in the eastern part of the Lower Danube during the proto-Byzantine era, included in the vast European barbaricum, during the centuries. 6 ° -8 ° forms of the so-called pre-medieval folkloric handicraft appeared, both in the field of ceramics – a ‘popular’ production common to native and migrant peoples, of Roman derivation, decorated with stripes or punch and with immediate analogies in the Germanic cultural sphere – and in that of goldsmiths. In the latter case, they are jewels common to the whole of south-eastern Europe, some of local origin, as evidenced by the casting molds discovered in Wallachia and Moldavia, the avar belt seals of the Mureş valley, with Byzantine motifs and Asian, the ‘digitized’ fibulae similar to those of the Slavic world discovered in Moldavia, Wallachia, Oltenia, Dobruja and Transylvania, where there are also some gepidic-style buckles. 4th and 5th, in which the influences of the art of the steppes of Central Asia and those of the northern coasts of the Black Sea, Iran and the Byzantine world are manifested, highlighting the main techniques (casting, hammering, engraving, punching, embossed, champlevé and cloisonné workings) which are found in this period from the British Isles to Siberia. The treasure of Petroasa (see Bucharest, Muz. Naţional de Istorie al României) is particularly worthy of mention, representative of the art of the decades around 400 and true point of encounter between the artistic currents coming from classical toreutics and those that lead to the art of the Frankish West.

The same also applies to another treasure dating back to around 400, that of Şimleul Silvaniei (Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Múz.; Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Mus.), Discovered at two different times and including gold medallions, made with Roman-barbarian stylistic features of the end of the century. 4th, vases, rings, bracelets, belt ornaments, fibulae of a purely Roman type, also in precious metal and decorated with stylized animalistic and anthropomorphic motifs that have similarities with materials from the northern area of ​​Pontus Eusine, in which they were still the Greco-Roman traditions are very much alive, albeit with ‘barbaric’ corrections. This vitality is even more evident in a third treasure, contemporary to the previous ones, discovered in Romania, that of Conceşti (St. Petersburg, Ermitage), in which three silver vases, richly decorated with scenes belonging to the Hellenistic, Roman and Roman repertoire -Byzantine, with mythological characters, human masks and plant motifs, can also be attributed to the shops located in the Crimea; these workshops maintained during the centuries. 4th and 5th the memory of classical art up to the Lower Danube area, Transylvania and central Europe. The treasures of Apahida (v.) And Cluj-Someşeni, both preserved in Bucharest (Muz. Naţional de Istorie al României), are particularly characteristic of the century. 5th, during which, at the time of the political domination of the Huns, the echoes of Greco-Roman toreutics gave way more and more to the Germanic polychrome style. The silver vases, decorated with Bacchic scenes, the bracelets, rings, earrings and belt buckles in gold, the sumptuous ornaments for costumes and finishes, the weapons set with precious stones that make up zoomorphic motifs and geometric combinations, coming from the two so-called princely tombs of Apahida – which present very close analogies with the Franco-Merovingian and the Anglo-Saxon world -, as well as the jewels of Cluj-Someşeni, some of which clearly recall Roman and Byzantine prototypes, are eloquent testimonies of the persistence classics in a stylistic climate that, before 600, seems to have brought together very different cultural elements under the artistic – or rather artisanal – relationship that linked the autochthonous Romans, faithful to the canons of Roman-Byzantine art of the southern Danubian region, to the Germanic migratory peoples who moved from the East towards Western Europe. 9 ° -12 ° there was actually a medieval artistic production.

Romania Medieval Arts Part I