Constitutional order. – The constitution proclaimed, as mentioned, on February 27, 1938, replaces that of March 29, 1923. For it the king is head of state and, as such, participates in the legislative, executive and judicial powers. Succession is governed by Salic law in the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen family. The various cases of lack of successor are foreseen, and the regency is regulated. The king opens and closes parliamentary sessions, appoints and dismisses ministers, has the right of pardon, can issue, in addition to the implementing regulations, decree-laws, limited to the periods in which the parliament is not in session, is head of the army, has the right to declare war and conclude peace. Due to his position, the king is of age at 18, and incurs no political or criminal liability. Its state acts are countersigned by a minister who thereby assumes responsibility for them. Only the decree appointing the prime minister is not countersigned. When he comes to the throne, the king takes an oath. For Romania political system, please check computerminus.com.
Executive power is exercised by the king through the government, made up of ministers and undersecretaries of state, who are politically responsible only towards the king. Only those who have been Romanians for at least three generations can be appointed as ministers: members of the royal family cannot be ministers. Criminal proceedings against ministers for crimes committed in the exercise of their functions belong to the High Court of Cassation in joint sections.
In Romania the bicameral system is in force. The Assembly of Deputies is made up of Romanian citizens who have the requisites to be electors. The term of office is six years. The Senate is composed of members appointed by the king, members by right, by virtue of their high office of the state and the Church, and elected members. The mandate of the latter lasts nine years, with the criterion of renewing a third of the members every three years. The Legislative Council functions as an advisory body on all bills.
Cults. – The Catholic diocese, of the Latin rite, of Transylvania took the name of Alba Julia as early as 1932.
Finance. – We give below the figures, in millions of lei, of the balance sheets since 1934.
As of December 31, 1935, the external debt (whose service is always suspended) amounted to 114.4 billion and the internal debt to 24.7 (of which 22.2 consolidated).
The exchange control has been in force since May 1932. Since July 1935 the devaluation of the leu has been de facto recognized through the institution of bonuses for gold purchases by the Bank (30 and then 38%); on 6 November 1936 the reserves were then revalued, setting the devaluation at 27.54%.
As of December 31, 1937, notes in circulation amounted to 29 milliards and reserves to 16.5 in gold and 2.3 in foreign currencies.
Army (p. 15). – The recent changes in the Romanian army mainly concern artillery, which currently includes: 42 mixed regiments of field artillery, 4 regiments of horse artillery, 7 regiments and 22 groups of heavy artillery, 2 regiments of guard artillery, 2 mountain howitzers regiments and 6 mountain artillery groups. Each regiment is on 20 three groups of 2 or 3 batteries each.
Military aviation. – It depends on the Ministry of Air and the Navy. The Romanian air forces are divided into 3 air zones and a sub-zone. The 1st zone (Cluj) includes 1 mixed flotilla in Cluj (3 fighter squadrons and 1 reconnaissance squadron) and one in Blaj (4 fighter squadrons and 1 anti-aircraft artillery group); the 2nd zone (IaŞi) includes 1 mixed flotilla in IaŞi (2 fighter squadrons and 1 reconnaissance) and 1 in Galaţi (2 fighter squadrons and 4 reconnaissance); the 3rd zone (Bucharest) includes 1 fighter flotilla in Bucharest (6 squadrons), 1 bombing flotilla in BraŞov (3 squadrons), 1 aeronautical regiment in Bucharest (6 companies) and 1 anti-aircraft artillery group in Bucharest; the maritime coast sub-area (Constance) includes 1 hydro-aviation flotilla in Mamaia (1 bombing squadron, 1 reconnaissance, 1 training).
The three groups of anti-aircraft artillery include, in total, 16 horse-drawn batteries, 6 batteries on railway wagons, 8 motorized batteries, 2 semi-fixed batteries, 2 stationary batteries, 5 anti-aircraft machine gun companies, 3 of photoelectricists and 3 of aerophones.
Civil aviation. – It depends on the Ministry of Air and the Navy. Among the Romanian aeronautical associations include also that of the state railways, which promotes the development of air tourism between the railway staff, and the aviatoria Association of Romanian university youth (A. S. T. U. Romania), Which intends to direct students to practice flying with and without an engine.
The Romanian lines are all managed by the LARES company; they are: a) international lines: Bucharest-Galaţi-Cetatea-Albă-Odessa; Bucharest-Galaţi-IaŞi-Moscow; Bucharest-Cernăuţi-Warsaw; Bucharest-Cluj-Prague; Bucharest-Belgrade-Rome; Bucharest-Belgrade-Zagreb-Trieste-Venice; Bucharest-Sofia-Thessaloniki-Athens. b) national lines: Bucharest-CălăraŞi-Bazargic-Balcic; Bucharest-Constance-Balcic; Galaţi-Constance; IaŞi-ChiŞinău-Cetatea-Albă-Ismail-Galaţi; Bucharest-Galaţi-JaŞi-Cernăuţi; IaŞi-Cluj; Bucharest-Craiova-TimiŞoara-Arad; Bucharest-Alexandria-Turnu-Magurele-Rosiori de Vede-Caracal-Craiova.
The devices are: Junkers F. 13, Junkers Ju 50, Icar, De Havilland Dragon Rapeid, De Hallivand Dragon Fly, Lockeed Electra.
Merchant Navy (p. 13). – At 30 June 1937 the merchant navy consisted of 30 ships for 88.4.26 tons. gross, all steamed. The Serviciul Maritim Român is trying to renew its material; to this end, orders have been passed to Danish shipyards.