Romania Demographics 1992

By | December 23, 2021

On 21 November 1991, following the insurrection of December 1989 which led to the deposition and execution of Prime Minister N. Ceauçsescu, in power since 1974, the new constitution was launched, approved by a popular referendum celebrated on 8 December., according to which the head of the new state (the Republic of Romania) is the President of the Republic, elected by direct suffrage for a period of four years. Legislative power is exercised by the National Assembly, made up of the Chamber of Deputies (of 341 members) and the Senate (of 143 members), also elected for a four-year term.

At the 1992 census the population amounted to 22,760,449 residents, over 1.2 million residents. more than in the previous census round, held in 1977. The average density is just under 96 residents / km 2 and goes from 180-150 residents / km 2in the districts of Prahova, Iaçsi, Galaçti, Dîmboviçta and Braçsov, to less than 50 residents / km 2of the districts of Tulcea and Caraçs-Severin. The population growth coefficient decreased significantly and went from an average annual increase of about 1% in the 1970s to an average annual rate of 0.4% measured in the 1986-91 interval. The capital, Bucharest, in 1992 had 2,064,474 residents, which rose to about 2.4 million considering the urban agglomeration as a whole. Not only are there no other millionaire cities in the country, but there are also no cities with more than 500,000 residents; on the other hand, there are seven centers with a population of between 300 and 400,000 residents. The percentage of urban population, although the process of urbanization of the residents of the countryside has continued intensely in the last fifteen years, slightly exceeds half of the total population: one of the lowest values ​​in Western Europe. Still at the 1992 census, the Romanians were 20,353,980 (equal to 89.4% of the total); the largest ethnic minority was that of the Hungarians (1,620,199 units, mostly located in Transylvania, corresponding to 7.1% of the country’s population). The Germans are now less than 0.5% (less than 120,000 units), the Gypsies exceed 400,000 units, while there are minimal percentages of Ukrainians, Russians and Turks. For Romania travel information, please check

Economic conditions. – In the aftermath of the fall of the Ceauçsescu regime, the Romanian economy found itself in very critical conditions. The reforms launched under the new course have found serious obstacles to take off due to both the phase of political adjustment that the country has gone through (a phase which, however, has not yet ended), and specific reasons of a purely economic nature such as the unstable monetary and financial situation with the inevitable consequences on the price trend, the precarious operational situation of the large public enterprises undergoing privatization, the low productivity of the entire Romanian economic system. In 1992 the World Bank estimates attributed to Romania a per capita income less than 1150 dollars, a low value even if compared with other Eastern European countries and which places the Romania more close to developing economies than to advanced ones; moreover, in the period 1980-92 the gross domestic product increased at rates lower – albeit slightly – than the demographic increase: this means that, in per capita termsreal, the product contracted. Overall, the Romanian economy – already in great difficulty in the 1980s – has been significantly affected by the political crisis that hit the country and, despite the process of privatizing state industries being quite advanced, it has not yet completed the process. transition from the socialist to the market regime. With the fall of socialism also in the other Eastern European countries, with the dissolution of the USSR and the dissolution of the Comecon, the Romania North America (with some of which it has signed economic cooperation agreements). Finally, again in the early nineties, the economy of Romania

Agriculture continues to represent an important sector in the country’s economic landscape. In 1992 the sector contributed slightly less than 20% to the formation of the gross domestic product, but it housed almost 30% of the total workforce, reflecting the low productivity in which this sector also operates. Among the main crops, wheat (over two million ha cultivated, with a production that exceeded 5 million t in 1991), corn (two and a half million ha, with a production of over 10 million tonnes), oats, barley and other cereals; potatoes (almost 20 million q) and vegetables in general; fruit and oil crops. A moderate production concerns industrial crops such as flax, cotton, sugar beet and tobacco; good wine production (almost one million tons of grapes and over 6 million hl of wine). Breeding is also widespread (with a good production of derivatives, such as meat, milk and dairy products), while a decent production of wood is obtained from the 6.5 million ha of woods (17.3 million m3).

The industry (including the extractive sector) contributes almost 50% to the formation of the gross domestic product of the Romania and hosts about 35% of the total active population. For the reasons already mentioned, industrial production underwent a significant contraction in the early nineties; the problems of restructuring and modernization of the sector, burdened by negative factors such as low quality of the products, obsolescence of the plants, poor technology used, are not completely solved. The extraction sector still has its strengths in oil (less than 7 million t in 1991), in natural gas (about 15 million m 3), in lignite (40 million tons); in addition, very modest quantities of iron, silver, zinc, lead and copper are extracted. The manufacturing sector is based on metalworking and chemical processes: both sectors suffer from a lack of electricity and an inadequate supply of raw materials. The steel industry produces (according to 1991 data) about 5 million tons of pig iron and 7 million tons of steel; from the other metallurgical plants aluminum, lead, zinc, etc. are produced. The mechanical industry is based on the production of diesel engines, tractors, locomotives and railway wagons, machinery for the oil sector, and so on. Agreements have recently been signed with French car manufacturers (Renault and Citroën) for a local production of passenger cars. A few shipyards are located in Galaçti and Costanza. The chemical sector produces sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, as well as soda ash and nitrogen fertilizers. The industrial landscape is then enriched by the textile, food and paper, wood, cement, etc. sectors. Regional policy, at least at the level of statements, continued to be oriented towards the attenuation of imbalances, with investments aimed at less developed regions (Moldova, Dobruja, Banat, as well as mountainous areas). However, the modernization imperative has led to a considerable concentration of investments in the economically best-equipped areas: the Bucharest-Braçsov-Cluj-Napoca axis has thus seen its production capacity increase and, with it, the gap with respect to the remaining part of the country,

The installed power is of the order of 23 million kW, largely of thermal origin. In 1991 the production of electricity was 65 billion kWh (of which just over 10 are of water origin). The development of communication routes has suffered a certain slowdown after 1980. The only significant exception is the construction of the Danube-Black Sea canal, with an outlet in Constance, which allows for a more systematic use of the Danube as a waterway and favors the strengthening of the port area of ​​Constance.

Romania Demographics