Romania Demographics 1956

By | December 23, 2021

Division. – Since 1956 the Romanian Republic has been divided into 16 regions, plus the autonomous city of Bucharest. The city of BraŞov, one of the most industrial in Romania, has taken the name of Orasul Stalin since the end of 1948.

Population. – The last census of the population (1956) gave a result of 17,489,794 residents (74 per km 2), which rose to 18,255,000 (77 per km 2) according to a 1959 assessment.

Economic conditions. – According to art. 7 of the Constitution of 24 September 1952, the Romanian state organizes and develops the planned economy, based on state enterprises and cooperatives; the plans of the national economy are established by the Grand National Assembly, which is also responsible for controlling and approving the state budget and establishing taxes and other state revenues. The annual plans of 1949 and 1950 initiated post-war economic and financial reconstruction and the reorganization of the production system, which then reached its peak with the 1950-55 and 1955-60 five-year plans. For Romania 2008, please check

Although the Romanian economy is increasingly moving towards industrialization, efforts have also been made to increase agricultural production.

Thus, while in 1948 the crops, including the arborescent ones, extended over 9,300,000 ha, the forests over 6,326,000 ha and the permanent pasture-pastures over 3,400,000 ha, in 1956 the situation was the following: 10,125 crops. 000 ha, forests 6.438.000 ha and meadow-pastures 4.156.000 ha. In the first place are still cereals, and among these prevails maize, cultivated in 1958 on 3,645,000 ha (prod. 66,570-000 q), followed by wheat (2,973,000 ha and 29,140,000 q). Oats have seen their area decrease from 510,000 ha in 1948 to 311,000 ha in 1958 (prod. 2,500,000 q); so the barley of 410,000 ha (prod. 3,600,000 q) has now been reduced to 292,000 ha (prod. 3,050,000 q). Potato cultivation extended to 271,000 ha in 1958, with a production of 27,770,000 q. An attempt was made to introduce cotton among industrial crops; in 1958 20,000 q were collected (against the 230,000 q provided for in the five-year plan); flax gave 50,000 q and hemp 171,000 q. Sugar beet is grown on 131,000 ha; finally, the vine, cultivated in 1951 on 202,000 ha (prod. 4,500-000 hl of wine), now extends over 240,000 ha (prod. 2,620,000 hl of wine).

The zootechnical patrimony in 1958 is divided as follows: cattle 4,470,000, sheep and goats 10,887,500, pigs 3,248,000, horses 1,308,600; sericulture gave a production of 150,000 kg of cocoons in 1957.

Among the resources of the subsoil, the most important is oil, whose production has always been increasing; 9,300,000 t were produced in 1953, rising to 10-920,000 t in 1956 and 11,500,000 t in 1959. Methane was extracted in 1959 at the rate of 5,782 million m 3 and natural gas 6,750 million m 3. In 1950 the new wells in the districts of Prahova and Damboviţa (in the sub-Carpathian belt) came into operation, which offer 80% of the Romanian production; new wells were also drilled in the Bacǎu region (Moldova). Now all the product is refined within the country. A gas pipeline was built, 365 km long (230 of which in Romanian territory), which leads directly from the production area (Transylvania) to the Hungarian industrial district of Borsod. Coal production in 1957 was 7,054,825 t. In 1950 a new field was discovered in the Jiu valley. Iron ores, mined in 1959, amounted to 1,064,000 t.

After 1948 the industrialization of the country began in full, especially of the previously neglected regions, in which the first steps were taken to enhance the mineral resources. Thus centers of mechanical industries have been created in the region of MaramureŞ, in SE Transylvania the Vlǎhitzu steel plant has been given greater impetus, which takes advantage of the proximity of iron mines; in Oltenia the most important center of the electronic industry is in operation, other industrial plants have sprung up in Dobruja and Moldavia.

The mechanical industry produced 11,000 tractors in 1959 and 9513 motor vehicles. New plants are being built for the chemical industry: in Valea-Cǎlugǎreascǎ for petrochemistry, in Năvodari for fertilizers, in Govora for calcined soda, and an oxygen plant has recently been built in Bucharest. A pulp production complex was created in Brăila. The cement industry produced 2,568,000 tons in 1959.

The energy installed in 1959 was 1,650,000 kW; the energy produced in 1959, of 6,803 million kWh, of which 300 million hydroelectric. The 210,000 kW “Lenin” power station is under construction on Bistriţa. The thermal power station of Sîngiorgiu-de-Pădure (south-eastern Transylvania) has been in operation since 1954.

Communications. – The railway network is currently 12,200 km. After 1945, new railways were built; the Salva-ViŞen line, the Bumbesti-Livezeni line, which joins the mining region of Jiu with Craiova and the Danube plain, and finally the Bucarest-Craiova line. In recent years, a bridge over the Danube has been built, from Giurgiu to Ruse, with considerable advantage for communications with Bulgaria. In addition, a canal has been built, about 70 km long, which joins the Danube to the Black Sea; from Cernavodă, via Medgidia and Năvodari it reaches Cape Midia. Năvodari is thus supplanting Constanta in its function as the largest seaport in Romania. Communications between the two ends of the canal are also ensured by a recently built road. The channel, in addition to facilitating communications with the interior,

Foreign trade. – The value of imports, on average, for 1954-58 was around $ 55 million a year, that of exports about $ 110 million. Foreign trade is mainly directed towards the USSR (over 75%).

Finances. – An increase of 12.50% in national income is foreseen for 1960 compared to 1959. The state budget, which also includes those of local authorities, usually shows a surplus, which was 2.3 billion lei in 1958, 2.7 billion in 1959 and 900 million in 1960.

In 1959 the socialist sector provided 91.6% of the income; the remaining 8.4% was entirely provided by direct taxes. The main expenses concern the national economy for 33.6 billion, social services for 13.4 billion, and national defense for 3.5 billion. The revenues of the local and regional councils amounted, in 1957, to 8 billion lei, and the expenses to 7,5 billion. For 1960 the same revenues were expected to be 9.1 billion lei.

On February 1, 1954, the gold content of the leu was fixed at 0.148 grams of fine gold and the exchange rate at 6 lei for 1 US dollar; in July 1957, rewards were introduced for non-commercial transactions in a number of foreign currencies, including the dollar and sterling. From 13 November 1948, the National Bank of Romania became the Bank of the People’s Republic of Romania, subject to the control of the Ministry of Finance; other banks are the Agricultural Bank and the Investment Bank.

History. – The 1948 outbreak of the crisis between Yugoslavia and the USSR also involved the Romania, with the consequence of the worsening of the internal situation and greater subjection to the economy and politics of the USSR, under the dictatorship of Anna Pauker . While severe purges were carried out in the ranks of the Communist Party, of which the former minister L. Pătrăscanu was also a victim, the suspension of diplomatic relations with Yugoslavia was accompanied by repeated border incidents, especially in 1951, and continuous polemics against national deviation. -Communist.

Once the first five-year plan was launched, the difficulties of accelerated industrialization and above all the disruptions in agricultural production caused a new wave of purge: in July 1952, Pauker and her closest collaborators, the ministers of finance and of the interior V Luca and T. Georgescu. Power then passed into the hands of Gh. Gheorghiu-Dej, who always remained at home during the previous regime. The difficulties of political and economic settlement persisted, aggravated by the need to adapt to the changes that had occurred in the USSR following the death of Stalin. A new constitution was passed in September 1952, confirmed by plebiscitary elections.

In 1954, Pătrăscanu was sentenced to death, Luca to life imprisonment, and in other trials some Jewish exponents were sentenced, while Pauker’s fate remained obscure. Following the liquidation in the USSR by the “anti-party group” (July 1957), the Romanian Communist Party eliminated some Stalinist leaders, consolidating the centrist position of Gheorghiu-Dej.

In the economic field, the regime implemented a more flexible agrarian policy, especially in 1957-58, and obtained from the USSR, in 1954, the transfer of the Soviet shares of the sixteen mixed companies, created after 1945 for the control and Sovietization of the major Romanian economic activities.

The repercussions of de-Stalinization manifested themselves rapidly in relations with Yugoslavia. With the death of Stalin, an agreement was in fact concluded for the control of Danube navigation at the Iron Gates, which Bucharest had previously refused to negotiate. Marshal Tito and Khrushchev met in Romania in August 1957. The anti-Yugoslav controversy resumed, however, in 1958.

Meanwhile, the Romania remained inserted in the Komekon, accentuating its planning according to the dictates of coordination between the economies of the communist states, especially after the Bucharest conference of the Economic Cooperation Organism in December 1955. The Romania was a signatory of the Pact of Warsaw of 14 May 1955. On 11 December of the same year she was admitted to the N.U.

The Hungarian revolution had repercussions especially in Transylvania, among the Magyar minority. Once the military ties had been strengthened under the single command provided for by the Warsaw Pact, the Soviet troops, who had remained in Romania since 1945, began the evacuation of the country in June 1958: according to Khrushchev’s speech to the Supreme Soviet of January 14, 1960, by that time the Soviet troops had completely evacuated Romania.

In the initial phase of the detente between East and West, the Romania tried to make contact, through visits of its political personalities, with non-communist countries, including Greece. In September 1957, Foreign Minister V. Stojcă proposed a Balkan conference for the conclusion of a non-aggression pact and for the denuclearization of the region. Despite the Yugoslav mistrust and the Greek and Turkish refusal, the initiative was repeatedly resumed, in the context of Soviet orientations, tending to remove nuclear bases from the entire Scandinavian-German-Balkan belt.

Romania Demographics 1956